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Table of Contents
As filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on November 5, 2021
Registration
No. 333-                
 
 
 
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
 
 
FORM S-1
REGISTRATION STATEMENT
Under
The Securities Act of 1933
 
 
AURORA INNOVATION, INC.
(Exact name of Registrant as specified in its charter)
 
 
 
Delaware
 
7373
 
98-1562265
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
 
(Primary Standard Industrial
Classification Code Number)
 
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification Number)
50 33rd St,
Pittsburgh PA, 15201
(888)
583-9506
(Address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of Registrant’s principal executive offices)
 
 
Chris Urmson
Chief Executive Officer and President
Aurora Innovation, Inc.
50 33rd St,
Pittsburgh PA, 15201
(888)
583-9506
(Name, address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of agent for service)
 
 
Copies to:
Damien Weiss
Megan J. Baier
Mark G.C. Bass
Wilson Sonsini Goodrich & Rosati, P.C.
1301 Avenue of the Americas
New York, NY 10019
Telephone: (212)
999-5800
 
William Mouat, Esq.
General Counsel
Aurora Innovation, Inc.
50 33rd St,
Pittsburgh PA, 15201
(888)
583-9506
 
 
Approximate date of commencement of proposed sale to the public:
As soon as practicable after the effective date of this Registration Statement.
If any of the securities being registered on this form are to be offered on a delayed or continuous basis pursuant to Rule 415 under the Securities Act of 1933, check the following box.   ☒
If this form is filed to register additional securities for an offering pursuant to Rule 462(b) under the Securities Act, please check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering.   ☐
If this form is a post-effective amendment filed pursuant to Rule 462(c) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering.   ☐
If this form is a post-effective amendment filed pursuant to Rule 462(d) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering.   ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a
non-accelerated
filer, smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in
Rule 12b-2
of the Exchange Act.
 
Large accelerated filer
 
  
Accelerated filer
 
Non-accelerated filer
 
  
Smaller reporting company
 
 
  
Emerging growth company
 
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 7(a)(2)(B) of the Securities Act.   
 
 
CALCULATION OF REGISTRATION FEE
 
 
 
Title of Each Class of
Securities to be Registered
 
Amount to be
Registered
 
Proposed Maximum
Offering Price Per Share
 
Proposed Maximum
Aggregate Offering Price
 
Amount of
Registration Fee
Class A Common Stock, par value $0.00001 per share
(1)(2)
 
234,985,915
 
$9.94
(7)
 
$2,335,759,995.10
(7)
 
$216,524.95
Class A Common Stock, par value $0.00001 per share
(1)(3)
 
247,498,882
 
$9.94
(7)
 
$2,460,138,887.08
(7)
 
$228,054.88
Class A Common Stock, par value $0.00001 per share
(1)(4)
 
399,468,805
 
$9.94
(7)
 
$3,970,719,921.70
(7)
 
$368,085.74
Warrants to purchase Class A Common Stock
(1)(5)
 
8,900,000
 
$—  
 
$—  
 
$—
  (8)
Class A Common Stock, par value $0.00001 per share
(1)(5)
 
8,900,000
 
$9.94
(7)
 
$88,466,000.00
 
$8,200.80
Class A Common Stock, par value $0.00001 per share
(1)(6)
 
12,218,750
 
$9.94
(7)
 
$121,454,375.00
(7)
 
$11,258.82
Total
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
$816,794.93
(9)
 
 
(1)
Pursuant to Rule 416(a) under the Securities Act, this Registration Statement shall also cover an indeterminable number of additional securities as may be issued to prevent dilution resulting from stock splits, stock dividends or similar transactions.
(2)
Consists of (A) 234,560,193 shares of Class A Common Stock issuable by us upon conversion of Class B Common Stock held by certain of our stockholders (the
“Non-Affiliate
Conversion Stock”) and (B) an aggregate of 425,722 shares of the Registrant’s Class A Common Stock issuable upon the exercise of certain outstanding options to purchase Class A Common Stock held by individuals who terminated their employment with Aurora Innovation, Inc. prior to the closing of business combination among Reinvent Technology Partners Y, Aurora Innovation, Inc. and RTPY Merger Sub Inc. (the “Former Employee Options”), which are registered for issuance on this Registration Statement
(3)
Consists of (A) 246,547,784 shares of Class A Common Stock issuable by us upon conversion of Class B Common Stock held by certain of our stockholders (the “Affiliate Conversion Stock”) and (B) 951,098 shares of Class A Common Stock issuable upon the exercise of certain outstanding options to purchase Class A Common Stock (the “Affiliate Options”) and vesting of certain restricted stock units for Class A Common Stock held by certain of our affiliates and their affiliated entities (the “Affiliate RSUs” and together with the Affiliate Options, the “Affiliate Equity Stock”), which are registered for issuance and resale on this Registration Statement.
(4)
Consists of an aggregate of 399,468,805 shares of the Registrant’s Class A Common Stock registered for resale on this Registration Statement, including (A) 4,029,344 shares of Class A Common Stock beneficially owned by certain of our affiliates (the “Affiliate Class A Stock”), (B) 6,883,086 shares of Class A Common Stock beneficially owned by Reinvent Sponsor Y LLC (the “Sponsor Stock”), (C) 100,000,000 shares of Class A Common Stock purchased at Closing by a number of subscribers pursuant to separate PIPE Subscription Agreements (the “PIPE Shares”), and (D) 288,556,375 shares of Class A Common Stock beneficially owned by certain stockholders who have been granted registration rights (the “Registration Rights Shares”). These shares are registered for resale on this Registration Statement.
(5)
Refers to (A) 8,900,000 warrants that were purchased by the Sponsor in connection with the RTPY IPO in a private placement (the “ Private Placement Warrants”) registered for resale on this Registration Statement and (B) 8,900,000 shares of the Registrant’s Class A Common Stock issuable upon exercise of the Private Placement Warrants registered for issuance and resale on this Registration Statement. Each Private Placement Warrant is exercisable for one share of the Registrant’s Class A Common Stock at a price of $11.50 per share, subject to adjustment.
(6)
Consists of 12,218,750 shares of the Registrant’s Class A Common Stock issuable upon exercise of public warrants that were issued to stockholders in connection with the RTPY IPO Private Placement Warrants, which are registered for issuance on this Registration Statement. Each Public Warrant is exercisable for one share of the Registrant’s Class A Common Stock at a price of $11.50 per share, subject to adjustment.
(7)
Estimated solely for purposes of calculating the registration fee according to Rule 457(c) under the Securities Act based on the average of the high and low prices of the Registrant’s Class A Common Stock quoted on the Nasdaq Capital Market on November 2, 2021.
(8)
Pursuant to Rule 457(g) of the Securities Act, no separate fee is recorded for the Warrants and the entire fee is allocated to the underlying Class A Common Stock.
(9)
Pursuant to Rule 457(p) under the Securities Act, the Registrant is offsetting the registration fee due under this Registration Statement by $15,330.26, which represents the portion of the registration fee paid with respect to securities that had previously been included in the Registrant’s registration statement on Form
S-1,
as amended (Registration Statement
No. 333-253075),
which was originally filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on February 12, 2021 and was declared effective by the Securities and Exchange Commission on March 15, 2021.
 
 
The Registrant hereby amends this Registration Statement on such date or dates as may be necessary to delay its effective date until the Registrant shall file a further amendment which specifically states that this Registration Statement shall thereafter become effective in accordance with Section 8(a) of the Securities Act of 1933 or until the Registration Statement shall become effective on such date as the Commission acting pursuant to said Section 8(a) may determine.
 
 
 

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EXPLANATORY NOTE
On November 3, 2021 (the “Closing”), Aurora Innovation, Inc. (the “Company” or “Aurora”), f/k/a Reinvent Technology Partners Y, our legal predecessor and a special purpose acquisition company (“RTPY”) sponsored by affiliates of Reinvent Sponsor Y LLC, consummated the previously announced Merger with Aurora Innovation, Inc. (“Legacy Aurora”), and RTPY Merger Sub Inc. (“Merger Sub”), a wholly owned subsidiary of RTPY pursuant to a Business Combination Agreement dated July 14, 2021. Pursuant to the Merger, Merger Sub merged with and into Legacy Aurora, the separate corporate existence of Merger Sub ceased, and Legacy Aurora continued as the surviving corporation in the Merger and as a wholly owned subsidiary of RTPY. RTPY simultaneously changed its name from Reinvent Technology Partners Y to Aurora Innovation, Inc. The Merger was approved by RTPY’s stockholders at a meeting held on November 2, 2021.
As of the open of trading on November 4, 2021, the Company’s Class A Common Stock (the “Class A Common Stock”) and warrants (the “Warrants”), formerly those of RTPY, began trading on The Nasdaq Global Select Market (“Nasdaq”) under the symbols “AUR” and “AUROW”, respectively.
At the Closing and subject to the conditions of the Business Combination Agreement, all shares of capital stock of Legacy Aurora were cancelled and converted into the right to receive a number of shares of the Company’s Class A Common Stock equal to approximately 2.1708 (the “Exchange Ratio”) and shares of the Company’s Class B Common Stock equal to the Exchange Ratio, and each option to purchase shares of Legacy Aurora common stock or restricted stock units of Legacy Aurora, whether vested or unvested, was converted into an option to purchase shares of the Company’s Class A Common Stock or a restricted stock unit of the Company, as applicable, with the same terms except for the number of shares exercisable and the exercise price, using the Exchange Ratio.
Also at the Closing, a number of accredited investor purchasers (each a “PIPE Investor”) purchased from the Company an aggregate of 100,000,000 shares of Class A Common Stock, for a purchase price of $10.00 per share for an aggregate purchase price of $1.0 billion (the “PIPE Shares”), each pursuant to a separate subscription agreement (each, a “PIPE Subscription Agreement”), entered into effective as of July 14, 2021. Pursuant to the PIPE Subscription Agreements, the Company gave certain registration rights to the PIPE Investors with respect to the PIPE Shares, which shares are registered here.
Additional equity securities are registered here in accordance with the terms and conditions of the registration rights agreement entered into at the Closing by and among the Company, Sponsor, certain affiliates of the Sponsor and certain Legacy Aurora stockholders.

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The information in this preliminary prospectus is not complete and may be changed. These securities may not be sold until the registration statement filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission is effective. This prospectus is not an offer to sell these securities, nor does it seek an offer to buy these securities in any jurisdiction where the offer or sale is not permitted.
 
PRELIMINARY PROSPECTUS
  
Subject to Completion
  
November 5, 2021
903,072,352 Shares of Class A Common Stock
8,900,000 Warrants to Purchase Shares of Class A Common Stock
 
 
 
This prospectus relates to the registration of the Class A Common Stock, par value $0.00001 per share, of Aurora Innovation, Inc. and warrants to purchase shares of Class A Common Stock as described herein.
This prospectus also relates to the issuance and sale by us of an aggregate of (i) 234,560,193 shares of Class A Common Stock issuable by us upon conversion of the Class B Common Stock, par value $0.00001 per share, of Aurora Innovation, Inc. (the “Class B Common Stock”), held by certain of our stockholders, par value $0.00001 per share, of Aurora Innovation, Inc. (the
“Non-Affiliate
Conversion Stock”), (ii) 425,722 shares of Class A Common Stock issuable upon the exercise of certain outstanding options to purchase Class A Common Stock held by individuals who terminated their employment with Aurora Innovation, Inc. prior to the closing of business combination among Reinvent Technology Partners Y, Aurora Innovation, Inc. and RTPY Merger Sub Inc. (the “Former Employee Options”) and (iii) 12,218,750 shares of Class A Common Stock issuable upon the exercise of 12,218,750 warrants, exercisable on December 3, 2021, at a price of $11.50 per share (the “Public Warrants”).
This prospectus also relates to the issuance and resale of (i) 246,547,784 shares of Class A Common Stock issuable by us upon conversion of the Class B Common Stock held by certain of our stockholders the (“Affiliate Conversion Stock”), (ii) 951,098 shares of Class A Common Stock issuable upon the exercise of certain outstanding options to purchase Class A Common Stock (the “Affiliate Options”) and vesting of certain restricted stock units for Class A Common Stock held by certain of our affiliates and their affiliated entities (the “Affiliate RSUs” and together with the Affiliate Options, the “Affiliate Equity Stock”) and (iii) 8,900,000 shares of Class A Common Stock issuable upon the exercise of 8,900,000 Private Placement Warrants.
This prospectus also relates to the resale from time to time by the selling securityholders named in this prospectus or their permitted transferees (the “Selling Securityholders”) of (i) 4,029,344 shares of Class A Common Stock beneficially owned by certain of our affiliates (the “Affiliate Class A Stock”), (ii) 6,883,086 shares of Class A Common Stock beneficially owned by Reinvent Sponsor Y LLC (the “Sponsor Stock”), (iii) 100,000,000 shares of Class A Common Stock purchased at Closing by a number of subscribers pursuant to separate PIPE Subscription Agreements (the “PIPE Shares”), (iv) 288,556,375 shares of Class A Common Stock beneficially owned by certain stockholders who have been granted registration rights (the “Registration Rights Shares”) and (v) 8,900,000 Private Placement Warrants purchased by the Sponsor in connection with the RTPY IPO.
The Selling Securityholders may sell any, all or none of the securities and we do not know when or in what amount the Selling Securityholders may sell their securities hereunder following the date of this prospectus. The Selling Securityholders may sell the securities described in this prospectus in a number of different ways and at varying prices. We provide more information about how the Selling Securityholders may sell their securities in the section titled “
Plan of Distribution
” appearing elsewhere in this prospectus.
We will not receive any of the proceeds from the sale of the securities by the Selling Securityholders. We will receive proceeds from the exercise of the Warrants if the Warrants are exercised for cash and from the exercise of the Affiliate Options and the Former Employee Options. We will pay the expenses associated with registering the sales by the Selling Securityholders other than any underwriting discounts and commissions, as described in more detail in the section titled “
Use of Proceeds
” appearing elsewhere in this prospectus.
Of the 903,072,352 shares of Class A Common Stock that may be offered or sold by Selling Securityholders identified in this prospectus, 802,952,352 of those shares (the
“Lock-Up
Shares”) are subject to certain
lock-up
restrictions, pursuant to our bylaws and/or other agreements further described in the section titled “Certain Relationships and Related Person Transactions” appearing elsewhere in this prospectus.
Our Class A Common Stock is listed on The Nasdaq Global Select Market (“Nasdaq”) under the symbol “AUR” and the Public Warrants are listed on Nasdaq under the symbol “AUROW”. On November 2, 2021, the last quoted sale price for our Class A Common Stock as reported on Nasdaq was $9.94 per share and the last quoted sale price for our Public Warrants as reported on Nasdaq was $2.40 per warrant.
We are an “emerging growth company,” as defined under the federal securities laws, and, as such, may elect to comply with certain reduced public company reporting requirements for this prospectus and for future filings.
Investing in our securities involves a high degree of risk. Before buying any securities, you should carefully read the discussion of the risks of investing in our securities in “Risk Factors” beginning on page 7 of this prospectus.
You should rely only on the information contained in this prospectus or any prospectus supplement or amendment hereto. We have not authorized anyone to provide you with different information.
Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or determined if this prospectus is truthful or complete. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.
Prospectus dated                , 2021

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You should rely only on the information contained in this prospectus or in any applicable prospectus supplement prepared by us or on our behalf. Neither we nor the Selling Securityholders have authorized any other person to provide you with different information. If anyone provides you with different or inconsistent information, you should not rely on it. Neither we nor the Selling Securityholders are making an offer to sell these securities in any jurisdiction where the offer or sale is not permitted. You should assume that the information appearing in this prospectus is accurate only as of the date on the front cover of this prospectus. Our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects may have changed since that date.
This prospectus is part of a registration statement on
Form S-1
that we filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”) using the “shelf” registration process. Under this shelf registration process, the selling securityholders hereunder may, from time to time, sell the securities offered by them described in this prospectus. We will not receive any proceeds from the sale by such selling securityholders of the securities offered by them described in this prospectus.
We may also provide a prospectus supplement or post-effective amendment to the registration statement to add information to, or update or change information contained in, this prospectus. You should read both this prospectus and any applicable prospectus supplement or post-effective amendment to the registration statement together with the additional information to which we refer you in the section of this prospectus titled “
Where You Can Find Additional Information
.”
The Aurora design logo and the Aurora mark appearing in this prospectus are the property of Aurora Innovation, Inc. Trade names, trademarks and service marks of other companies appearing in this prospectus are the property of their respective holders. We have omitted the
®
and TM designations, as applicable, for the trademarks used in this prospectus.
 
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Within this prospectus, we reference industry and market data obtained from periodic industry publications, third-party studies and surveys, including from the American Automobile Association, American Transportation Research Institute, American Trucking Association, Armstrong & Associates, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, RAND Corporation, Pitney Bowes, Department of Transportation, Department of Commerce, Bureau of Labor Statistics, Federal Highway Administration and the World Health Organization, as well as from filings of public companies in our industry and internal company surveys. These sources include government and industry sources. Industry publications and surveys generally state that the information contained therein has been obtained from sources believed to be reliable. Although we believe the industry and market data to be reliable as of the date of this prospectus, this information could prove to be inaccurate. Industry and market data could be wrong because of the method by which sources obtained their data and because information cannot always be verified with complete certainty due to the limits on the availability and reliability of raw data, the voluntary nature of the data gathering process and other limitations and uncertainties. Each publication, study and report is as of its original publication date (and not as of the date of this prospectus). Certain of these publications, studies and reports were published before
the COVID-19 pandemic
and therefore do not reflect any impact
of COVID-19 on
any specific market or globally. In addition, we do not know all of the assumptions regarding general economic conditions or growth that were used in preparing the forecasts from the sources relied upon or cited herein. Neither we nor our stockholders can guarantee the accuracy or completeness of any such information contained in this prospectus.
 
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FREQUENTLY USED TERMS
Unless otherwise stated or unless the context otherwise requires, references in this prospectus to (1) “Legacy Aurora” refers to Aurora Innovation, Inc., a Delaware corporation, prior to the Merger, (2) “RTPY” refers to Reinvent Technology Partners Y, a Cayman company and our legal predecessor, prior to the Merger, and (3) “Aurora,” the “Company,” “Registrant,” “we,” “us” and “our” refers to Aurora Innovation, Inc., a Delaware corporation formerly known as Reinvent Technology Partners Y, and where appropriate, our wholly owned subsidiaries, following the Merger.
In this document:
“2017 Plan” are to the Aurora 2017 Equity Incentive Plan.
“2021 Plan” are to the Aurora Innovation, Inc. 2021 Equity Incentive Plan.
“Aggregate Merger Consideration” are to the number of shares of Aurora common stock equal to the quotient obtained by dividing (i) $11.0 billion, representing
the pre-transaction equity
value of Aurora, by (ii) $10.00.
“Apparate” are to Apparate USA LLC, formerly a subsidiary of Uber Technologies Inc., which was acquired by Aurora on January 19, 2021.
“Aurora Founders” are to Chris Urmson, Sterling Anderson and James Andrew (Drew) Bagnell.
“Aurora Incentive Plans” are to the Legacy Aurora 2017 Equity Incentive Plan, the Blackmore Sensors & Analytics, Inc. 2016 Equity Incentive Plan, and the OURS Technology Inc. 2017 Stock Incentive Plan, in each case, as amended.
“Aurora common stock” are to shares of Class A Common Stock and Class B Common Stock.
“Aurora Options” are to options to purchase shares of Class A Common Stock.
“Aurora RSU Awards” are to awards of restricted stock units based on shares of Class A Common Stock.
“Aurora” are to RTPY after the Business Combination and its name change from Reinvent Technology Partners Y to Aurora Innovation, Inc.
“Aurora PIPE Investor” are to a PIPE Investor that is a holder of shares of Legacy Aurora capital stock or securities exercisable for or convertible into Legacy Aurora capital stock as of the date of the Merger Agreement and not a Sponsor Related PIPE Investor.
“Legacy Aurora preferred stock” are to the Series Seed 1 preferred stock, Series Seed 2 preferred stock, Series A preferred stock, Series B preferred stock,
Series B-1 preferred
stock,
Series U-1 preferred
stock and
Series U-2 preferred
stock of Legacy Aurora.
“Legacy Aurora restricted stock” are to shares of Legacy Aurora common stock, which are subject to a substantial risk of forfeiture (within the meaning of Section 83 of the Code).
“Legacy Aurora RSU Awards” are to awards of restricted stock units based on shares of Legacy Aurora common stock granted under the Aurora Incentive Plans.
“Legacy Aurora Stockholders” are to the stockholders of Legacy Aurora and holders of Legacy Aurora Awards prior to the Business Combination.
 
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“Available Cash” are to the amount as calculated by adding the Trust Amount and the PIPE Investment Amount.
“Blackmore” are to Blackmore Sensors & Analytics, Inc.
“Board” means the board of directors of Aurora.
“Business Combination” are to the Domestication together with the Merger.
“Business Combination Agreement” means the Agreement and Plan of Merger, dated as of July 14, 2021, by and among RTPY, Merger Sub and Legacy Aurora.
“Bylaws” are to the bylaws of Aurora.
“Cayman Constitutional Documents” are to RTPY’s Amended and Restated Memorandum of Association (the “Existing Memorandum”) and RTPY’s Amended and Restated Articles of Association (the “Existing Articles”), each as amended from time to time.
“Certificate of Incorporation” are to the certificate of incorporation of Aurora.
“Class A Common Stock” means the shares of Class A Common Stock of Aurora Innovation, Inc., par value $0.00001 per share.
“Class B Common Stock” means the shares of Class B Common Stock of Aurora Innovation, Inc., par value $0.00001 per share.
“Closing” means the consummation of the Merger, which occurred on November 3, 2021.
“Code” means the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended.
“Company,” “we,” “us” and “our” are to Aurora.
“Continental” are to Continental Stock Transfer & Trust Company.
“DENSO” are to DENSO International America, Inc.
“DGCL” means the Delaware General Corporation Law.
“Domestication” are to the domestication of RTPY as a corporation incorporated in the State of Delaware.
“Exchange Act” means the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended.
“Exchange Ratio” are to the quotient obtained by dividing (a) the Aggregate Merger Consideration by (b) the aggregate fully diluted number of shares of Legacy Aurora common stock issued and outstanding immediately prior to the Merger (which is (i) the aggregate number of shares of Legacy Aurora common stock (A) issued and outstanding immediately prior to the Merger, (B) issuable upon the conversion of the Legacy Aurora preferred stock immediately prior to the Merger in accordance with Aurora’s Organizational Documents, (C) issuable upon, or subject to, the exercise of Legacy Aurora Options (whether or not then vested or exercisable) that are outstanding immediately prior to the Merger, and (D) subject to Legacy Aurora RSU Awards (whether or not then vested) that are outstanding immediately prior to the Merger,
 minus
 (ii) a number of shares of Legacy Aurora common stock equal to (x) the aggregate exercise price of the Legacy Aurora Options described in clause (C) above
 divided by
 (y) the Per Share Merger Consideration).
 
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“GAAP” means United States generally accepted accounting principles.
“Investor Rights Agreement” means the Investor Rights Agreement, entered into at the Closing, by and among RTPY, Legacy Aurora, and certain persons and entities holding Class A Common Stock.
“IRS” are to the U.S. Internal Revenue Service.
“JOBS Act” means the Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act of 2012, as amended.
“Legacy Aurora” means Aurora Innovation, Inc., prior to the Business Combination.
“Legacy Aurora Awards” are to Legacy Aurora Options and Legacy Aurora RSU Awards.
“Legacy Aurora Class B stock” are to shares of Legacy Aurora Class B stock, par value $0.0001 per share.
“Legacy Aurora capital stock” are to shares of Legacy Aurora common stock and Legacy Aurora Class B stock.
“Legacy Aurora common stock” are to shares of Legacy Aurora common stock, par value $0.0001 per share.
“Legacy Aurora Options” are to options to purchase shares of Legacy Aurora common stock granted under the Aurora Incentive Plans
“Merger” refers to the merging of Merger Sub with and into Legacy Aurora, with Legacy Aurora surviving the Merger as a wholly owned subsidiary of the Company and the other transactions contemplated by the Business Combination Agreement, consummated as of the Closing.
“Merger Agreement” are to the Agreement and Plan of Merger, dated as of July 14, 2021, by and among RTPY, Merger Sub and Aurora, as amended and modified from time to time.
“Merger Sub” means RTPY Merger Sub, Inc., a Delaware corporation.
“Morgan Stanley” are to Morgan Stanley & Co LLC.
“Nasdaq” means The Nasdaq Global Select Market.
“Organizational Documents” are to the Certificate of Incorporation and the Bylaws.
“PACCAR” are to PACCAR Inc.
“Per Share Merger Consideration” means the product obtained by multiplying (i) the Exchange Ratio by (ii) $10.00.
“Person” are to any individual, firm, corporation, partnership, limited liability company, incorporated or unincorporated association, joint venture, joint stock company, governmental authority or instrumentality or other entity of any kind.
“PIPE Investment” means the purchase of 100,000,000 shares of Class A Common Stock by certain accredited investors pursuant to the PIPE Subscription Agreement in connection with the Closing, for a purchase price of $10.00 per share, in a private placement.
 
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“PIPE Investment Amount” are to the aggregate gross purchase price actually received by RTPY prior to or substantially concurrently with Closing for the shares in the PIPE Investment of $1,000,000,000.
“PIPE Shares” are to the shares of Class A Common Stock to be issued to PIPE Investors in connection with the PIPE Investment.
“PIPE Subscription Agreement” means that certain Subscription Agreement between the Company and the PIPE Investors pursuant to which the PIPE Investors agreed to purchase, in the aggregate, 100,000,000 shares of Class A Common Stock at $10.00 per share for an aggregate commitment amount of $1,000,000,000.
“Pre-Closing Restructuring”
are to the Conversion Amendment, Preferred Stock Conversion, and the Exchange, in each case as set forth in the Merger Agreement.
“Preferred Stock” means the shares of preferred stock of Aurora, par value $0.00001 per share.
“Private Placement Warrants” means the warrants to purchase shares of Class A Common Stock purchased in a private placement in connection with the RTPY IPO, exercisable for one share of Class A Common Stock at a price of $11.50 per share, subject to adjustments.
“pro forma” are to giving pro forma effect to the Business Combination.
“Public Warrants” means the warrants to purchase shares of Class A Common Stock that are publicly traded under the “AURW” symbol on Nasdaq, exercisable for one share of Class A Common Stock at a price of $11.50 per share, subject to adjustments.
“redemption” are to each redemption of public shares for cash pursuant to the Cayman Constitutional Documents and the Proposed Organizational Documents.
“Registration Statement” are to the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part.
“Reinvent Capital” are to Reinvent Capital LLC.
“RTPY Board” are to the board of directors of RTPY.
“RTPY Class A ordinary shares” are to RTPY’s Class A ordinary shares, par value $0.00001 per share.
“RTPY Class B ordinary shares” are to RTPY’s Class B ordinary shares, par value $0.00001 per share.
“RTPY Founder Shares” are to the RTPY Class B ordinary shares purchased by the Sponsor in a private placement prior to the RTPY IPO.
“RTPY IPO” means RTPY’s initial public offering of Units, consummated on March 18, 2020.
“RTPY IPO registration statement” are to the Registration Statement on
Form S-1 (333-253075)
filed by RTPY in connection with its initial public offering, which became effective on March 18, 2021.
“RTPY ordinary shares” are to RTPY Class A ordinary shares and RTPY Class B ordinary shares.
“RTPY units” and “units” are to the units of RTPY, each unit representing one RTPY Class A ordinary share
and one-eighth of
one redeemable warrant to acquire one RTPY Class A ordinary share, that were offered and sold by RTPY in the RTPY IPO and registered pursuant to the RTPY IPO registration statement (less the number of units that have been separated into the underlying public shares and underlying warrants upon the request of the holder thereof).
 
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“RTPY” refers to the former Reinvent Technology Partners Y, now known as Aurora Innovation, Inc., a Delaware corporation.
“Sarbanes-Oxley Act” are to the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002.
“SEC” means the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission.
“Securities Act” means the Securities Act of 1933, as amended.
“Sponsor” means Reinvent Sponsor Y LLC, a Cayman Islands limited liability company.
“Sponsor Agreement” are to that certain Sponsor Agreement, dated as of July 14, 2021, by and among the Sponsor, RTPY and Aurora, as amended and modified from time to time.
“Sponsor Related PIPE Investor” are to Reinvent Technology SPV II LLC, which is a special purpose vehicle formed solely to invest in the PIPE Investment.
“Sponsor Shares” are to the shares of Class A Common Stock received by the Sponsor upon the conversion of RTPY Class B Ordinary Shares held by the Sponsor in the Domestication.
“Sponsor Support Agreement” are to that certain Sponsor Support Agreement, dated as of July 14, 2021, by and among the Sponsor, RTPY, the directors and officers of RTPY, and Aurora.
“Stockholder
Lock-Up
Agreement” means that Stockholder
Lock-Up
Agreement entered into at Closing by and among Aurora, the Sponsor, certain affiliates of the Sponsor, and certain Legacy Aurora stockholders.
“Subscription Agreements” means the PIPE Subscription Agreements and the Sponsor Backstop Subscription Agreement.
“Third Party PIPE Investors” are to those certain third-party investors who participated in the PIPE Investment.
“Treasury Regulations” are to the regulations promulgated under the Code by the United States Department of the Treasury (whether in final, proposed or temporary form), as the same may be amended from time to time.
“trust account” are to the trust account established at the consummation of the RTPY IPO at Morgan Stanley and maintained by Continental, acting as trustee.
“Trust Amount” are to the amount of cash available in the trust account as of the Closing, after deducting the amount required to satisfy RTPY’s obligations to its shareholders (if any) that exercise their redemption rights and after payment of any (x) deferred underwriting commissions being held in the trust account and (y) Aurora transaction expenses or RTPY transaction expenses.
“Uber” are to Uber Technologies, Inc.
“Volvo” are to Volvo Group.
“Warrant Agreement” are to the Warrant Agreement, dated as of March 15, 2021, by and between RTPY and Continental, as warrant agent.
“Warrants” means the Public Warrants and Private Placement Warrants.
 
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CAUTIONARY NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
This prospectus contains forward-looking statements within the meaning of the federal securities laws, which statements involve substantial risks and uncertainties. Forward-looking statements generally relate to future events or our future financial or operating performance. In some cases, you can identify forward-looking statements because they contain words such as “may,” “might,” “possible,” “will,” “should,” “expect,” “plan,” “anticipate,” “could,” “intend,” “target,” “project,” “contemplate,” “believe,” “estimate,” “predict,” “potential” or “continue” or the negative of these words or other similar terms or expressions that concern our expectations, strategy, plans or intentions. Forward-looking statements contained in this prospectus include statements about:
 
   
the Company’s ability to recognize anticipated benefits of the Merger, which may be affected by, among other things, the ability of the Company to grow and manage growth profitably following the Closing;
 
   
the projected financial information, including but not limited to assumptions around vehicle miles traveled, market penetration and pricing;
 
   
our estimated total addressable market, the market for autonomous vehicles, and our market position;
 
   
the ability to maintain the listing of our Class A Common Stock and warrants on Nasdaq;
 
   
our ability to raise financing in the future;
 
   
our ability to effectively manage our growth and future expenses;
 
   
the sufficiency of our cash and cash equivalents to meet our operating requirements;
 
   
our success in retaining or recruiting, or changes required in, our officers, key employees or directors;
 
   
the impact of the regulatory environment and complexities with compliance related to such environment;
 
   
our ability to successfully collaborate with business partners;
 
   
our ability to obtain, maintain, protect and enforce our intellectual property;
 
   
the impact of the
COVID-19
pandemic; and
 
   
other factors detailed under the section entitled “
Risk Factors
.”
We caution you that the foregoing list does not contain all of the forward-looking statements made in this prospectus.
You should not rely upon forward-looking statements as predictions of future events. We have based the forward-looking statements contained in this prospectus primarily on our current expectations and projections about future events and trends that we believe may affect our business, operating results, financial condition and prospects. The outcome of the events described in these forward-looking statements is subject to risks, uncertainties and other factors, including those described in the section titled “
Risk Factors
” and elsewhere in this prospectus. Moreover, we operate in a very competitive and rapidly changing environment. New risks and uncertainties emerge from time to time and it is not possible for us to predict all risks and uncertainties that could have an impact on the forward-looking statements contained in this prospectus. We cannot assure you that the results, events and circumstances reflected in the forward-looking statements will be achieved or occur, and actual results, events or circumstances could differ materially from those described in the forward-looking statements.
Neither we nor any other person assumes responsibility for the accuracy and completeness of any of these forward-looking statements. Moreover, the forward-looking statements made in this prospectus relate only to events as of the date on which the statements are made. We undertake no obligation to update any forward-looking statements made in this prospectus to reflect events or circumstances after the date of this prospectus or to reflect new information or the occurrence of unanticipated events, except as required by law. You should not place undue reliance on our forward-looking statements. Our forward-looking statements do not reflect the potential impact of any future acquisitions, mergers, dispositions, joint ventures or investments we may make.
 
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PROSPECTUS SUMMARY
The following summary highlights information contained elsewhere in this prospectus. It does not contain all the information you should consider before investing in our Class A Common Stock or Warrants. You should read this entire prospectus carefully, including the sections titled “Risk Factors,” “Business,” “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations,” “Where You Can Find Additional Information,” “Unaudited Pro Forma Condensed Combined Financial Information,” and our consolidated financial statements and related notes included elsewhere in this prospectus, before making an investment decision. In this prospectus, unless the context requires otherwise, all references to “we,” “our,” “us,” “Aurora,” the “Registrant,” and the “Company” refer to Aurora Innovation, Inc. and its consolidated subsidiaries following the Business Combination.
Overview
Aurora’s mission is to deliver the benefits of self-driving technology safely, quickly, and broadly.
Aurora was founded in 2017 by Chris Urmson, Sterling Anderson, and Drew Bagnell, three of the most prominent leaders in the self-driving space. Led by a team with deep experience, Aurora is developing the Aurora Driver based on what it believes to be the most advanced and scalable suite of self-driving hardware, software, and data services in the world to fundamentally transform the global transportation market. The Aurora Driver is designed as a platform to adapt and interoperate amongst a multitude of vehicle types and applications. As of September 30, 2021, it has been successfully integrated into eight different vehicle platforms: from passenger vehicles to light commercial vehicles to Class 8 trucks. By creating a common driver platform Aurora Driver for multiple vehicle types and use cases, the capabilities Aurora develops in one market reinforce and strengthen its competitive advantages in other areas. For example, the capabilities needed for a truck to move safely at highway speeds would also be critical in ride hailing, when driving a passenger to the airport via a highway. Aurora believes this is the right approach to bring self-driving to market and will enable it to capitalize on a massive opportunity, including what we believe to be a $4 trillion global trucking market, a $5 trillion passenger mobility market, and a $400 billion local goods delivery market.
We file annual, quarterly and current reports, proxy statements and other information with the SEC. The SEC maintains an Internet website at
www.sec.gov
that contains reports, proxy and information statements and other information about issuers, like us, that file electronically with the SEC. We also maintain a website at
www.aurora.tech
. We make available, free of charge, on our investor relations website at
https://aurora.tech/ir
, our Annual Reports on
Form 10-K,
Quarterly Reports on
Form 10-Q,
Current Reports on
Form 8-K
and amendments to these reports as soon as reasonably practicable after electronically filing or furnishing those reports to the SEC. Information contained on our website is not a part of or incorporated by reference into this prospectus and the inclusion of our website and investor relations website addresses in this prospectus is an inactive textual reference only.
Background
On November 3, 2021, RTPY, our legal predecessor company and a special purpose acquisition company
co-founded
by Reid Hoffman, Mark Pincus and Michael Thompson that closed its initial public offering in March 2021, consummated the previously announced merger with Aurora Innovation, Inc. and RTPY Merger Sub, Inc., a Delaware corporation and a wholly owned subsidiary of RTPY. Pursuant to the Merger, Merger Sub merged with and into Aurora Innovation, Inc. the separate corporate existence of Merger Sub ceased, and Aurora Innovation, Inc. continued as the surviving corporation in the Merger and as a wholly owned subsidiary of RTPY. The Merger was approved by RTPY’s stockholders at a meeting held on November 2, 2021. On the Closing, RTPY changed its name to Aurora Innovation, Inc.

 
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On November 4, 2021, our common stock and warrants, formerly those of RTPY, began trading on The Nasdaq Global Select Market under the ticker symbols “AUR” and “AUROW,” respectively.
As a result of the Merger, we raised gross proceeds of $1.2 billion, including the contribution of $0.2 billion of cash held in RTPY’s trust account from the RTPY IPO, net of the redemption of RTPY common stock held by RTPY’s public stockholders of $0.8 billion and $1 billion private investment in public equity at $10.00 per share of our Class A Common Stock. As a result of the Merger, we received net proceeds of $1.1 billion, net of estimated transaction costs of $0.1 billion. See “
Unaudited Pro Forma Condensed Combined Financial Information
” elsewhere in this prospectus for more information.
Risk Factors Summary
Our business is subject to numerous risks and uncertainties, including those highlighted in the section titled “
Risk Factors
” immediately following this prospectus summary. The following is a summary of the principal risks we face:
 
   
Self-driving technology is an emerging technology, and we face significant technical challenges to commercialize our technology, and if we cannot successfully overcome those challenges or do so on a timely basis, our ability to grow our business will be negatively impacted.
 
   
We are an early stage company with a history of losses, and we expect to incur significant expenses and continuing losses for the foreseeable future.
 
   
Aurora’s limited operating history makes it difficult to evaluate our future prospects and the risks and challenges we may encounter.
 
   
Aurora operates in a highly competitive market and some market participants have substantially greater resources. If one or more of our competitors commercialize their self-driving technology before we do, develop superior technology, or are perceived to have better technology, it could materially and adversely affect our business, prospects, financial condition and results of operations.
 
   
It is possible that our technology will have more limited performance or may take us longer to complete than is currently projected. This could materially and adversely affect our addressable markets, commercial competitiveness, and business prospects.
 
   
We expect that our business model will become less capital intensive as we transition our business to our Driver as a Service model and if that transition is delayed or does not occur, we will require significant additional capital investment to run our business.
 
   
Our services and technology may not be accepted and adopted by the market at the pace we expect or at all.
 
   
We may experience difficulties in managing our growth and expanding our operations.
 
   
Our business plans require a significant amount of capital. In addition, our future capital needs may require us to sell additional equity or debt securities that may dilute our stockholders.
 
   
We are highly dependent on the services of our senior management team and, specifically, our Chief Executive Officer, and if we are not successful in retaining our senior management team and, in particular, our Chief Executive Officer, and in attracting or retaining other highly qualified personnel, we may not be able to successfully implement our business strategy.
 
   
It is possible that Aurora’s self-driving unit economics do not materialize as expected, in particular as we transition to our Driver as a Service model. This could significantly hinder our ability to generate a commercially viable product and adversely affect our business prospects.

 
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As part of growing our business, we have in the past and may in the future make acquisitions. If we fail to successfully select, execute or integrate our acquisitions, it could materially and adversely affect our business, prospects, financial condition and results of operations, and our stock price could decline
 
   
Our operating and financial results projections rely in large part upon assumptions and analyses developed by us. If these assumptions or analyses prove to be incorrect, our actual operating results may be materially different from our projections and our estimates of certain financial metrics may prove inaccurate.
 
   
Unauthorized control or manipulation of systems in autonomous vehicles may cause them to operate improperly or not at all, or compromise their safety and data security, which could result in loss of confidence in us and our products and harm our business.
 
   
Our future insurance coverage may not be adequate to protect us from all business risks.
 
   
Our success is contingent on our ability to successfully maintain, manage, execute and expand on our existing partnerships and obtain new partnerships.
 
   
Burdensome regulations, inconsistent regulations, or a failure to receive regulatory approvals of our technology could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operation.
 
   
Despite the actions we are taking to defend and protect our intellectual property, we may not be able to adequately protect or enforce our intellectual property rights or prevent unauthorized parties from copying or reverse engineering our solutions. Our efforts to protect and enforce our intellectual property rights and prevent third parties from violating our rights may be costly.
 
   
The dual class structure of Aurora common stock has the effect of concentrating voting control with the Aurora Founders. This will limit or preclude your ability to influence corporate matters, including the outcome of important transactions, including a change in control.
 
   
The Aurora projected financial information considered by RTPY prior to the Business Combination may not be realized, which may adversely affect the market price of our stock.
Implications of Being an Emerging Growth Company
We are an “emerging growth company” as defined in the JOBS Act. As such, we may take advantage of reduced disclosure and other requirements otherwise generally applicable to public companies, including:
 
   
exemption from the requirement to have our registered independent public accounting firm attest to management’s assessment of our internal control over financial reporting;
 
   
exemption from compliance with the requirement of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board, or PCAOB, regarding the communication of critical audit matters in the auditor’s report on the financial statements;
 
   
reduced disclosure about our executive compensation arrangements; and
 
   
exemption from the requirement to hold
non-binding
advisory votes on executive compensation or golden parachute arrangements.
We will remain an emerging growth company until the earliest to occur of: (1) the last day of the fiscal year in which we have at least $1.07 billion in annual revenue; (2) the date we qualify as a “large accelerated filer,” with at least $700.0 million of equity securities held by
non-affiliates;
(3) the date on which we have issued more than $1.0 billion in
non-convertible
debt securities during the prior three-year period; and (4) the last day of the fiscal year ending after the fifth anniversary of the RTPY IPO.
 
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As a result of this status, we have taken advantage of reduced reporting requirements in this prospectus and may elect to take advantage of other reduced reporting requirements in our future filings with the SEC. In particular, in this prospectus, we have not included all of the executive compensation-related information that would be required if we were not an emerging growth company. In addition, the JOBS Act provides that an emerging growth company may take advantage of an extended transition period for complying with new or revised accounting standards, delaying the adoption of these accounting standards until they would apply to private companies unless it otherwise irrevocably elects not to avail itself of this exemption. We have elected to use this extended transition period for complying with new or revised accounting standards until we are no longer an emerging growth company or until we affirmatively and irrevocably opt out of the extended transition period. As a result, our financial statements may not be comparable to the financial statements of companies that comply with the new or revised accounting pronouncements as of public company effective dates.
Additional Information
Our principal executive offices are located at 50 33
rd
St, Pittsburgh, PA 152014, and our telephone number is (888)
583-9506.
Our website address is
www.aurora.tech
. The information on, or that can be accessed through, our website is not part of this prospectus, and you should not consider information contained on our website in deciding whether to purchase shares of our Class A Common Stock.
 
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THE OFFERING
 
Issuance of Class A Common Stock
 
 
Non-Affiliate
Conversion Stock
234,560,193 shares
 
Former Employee Options
425,722 shares
 
Shares of our Class A Common Stock issuable upon exercise of the Public Warrants
12,218,750 shares
 
Use of Proceeds
We will receive up to an aggregate of approximately $244.1 million from the exercise of all Warrants, assuming the exercise in full of such Warrants for cash and from the exercise of the Former Employee Options and Affiliate Options. We expect to use the net proceeds from the exercise of the Warrants, the Former Employee Options for general corporate purposes. See the section of this prospectus titled “
Use of Proceeds
” appearing elsewhere in this prospectus for more information.
 
Issuance and Resale of Class A Common Stock
 
 
Shares of Class A Common Stock offered by the Selling Securityholders hereunder (representing the Affiliate Conversion Stock and Affiliate Equity Stock
247,498,882 shares
 
Shares of our Class A Common Stock issuable upon exercise of the Private Placement Warrants
8,900,000 shares
 
Resale of Class A Common Stock
 
 
Shares of Class A Common Stock offered by the Selling Securityholders hereunder (representing the Affiliate Class A Stock, Sponsor Stock, PIPE Shares and Registration Rights Shares)
399,468,805 shares
 
Warrants Offered by the Selling Securityholders hereunder (representing the Private Placement Warrants)
8,900,000 warrants
 
Exercise Price of the Warrants
$11.50 per share, subject to adjustment as described herein.
 
Redemption
The warrants are redeemable in certain circumstances. See the section of this prospectus titled “
Description of Capital Stock–Warrants
” for further discussion.

 
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Use of Proceeds
We will not receive any proceeds from the sale of our Class A Common Stock and Warrants offered by the Selling Securityholders under this prospectus (the “Securities”). See the section of this prospectus titled “
Use of Proceeds
” appearing elsewhere in this prospectus for more information.
 
Risk Factors
See the section titled “
Risk Factors
” beginning on page 7 of this prospectus and other information included in this prospectus for a discussion of factors that you should consider carefully before deciding to invest in our Class A Common Stock and Warrants.
 
Nasdaq Symbol
“AUR” for our Class A Common Stock and “AUROW” for our Warrants.
 
Lock-Up
Restrictions
Of the 903,072,352 shares of Class A Common Stock that may be offered or sold by Selling Securityholders identified in this prospectus, 802,952,352 of those shares (the
“Lock-Up
Shares”), which include shares of Class A Common Stock issuable upon the exercise or vesting of outstanding equity awards and upon conversion of Class B Common Stock, are subject to certain
lock-up
restrictions, pursuant to our bylaws and/or other agreements further described in the section titled “
Certain Relationships and Related Person Transactions
” appearing elsewhere in this prospectus.

 
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RISK FACTORS
Investing in our common stock involves a high degree of risk. Before making an investment decision, you should consider carefully the risks and uncertainties described below, together with all of the other information in this prospectus, including the section titled “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” beginning on page 58 of this prospectus and our consolidated financial statements and related notes thereto included elsewhere in this prospectus. Our business, operating results, financial condition or prospects could also be harmed by risks and uncertainties not currently known to us or that we currently do not believe are material. If any of the risks actually occur, our business, operating results, financial condition and prospects could be adversely affected. In that event, the market price of our Class A Common Stock and Public Warrants could decline, and you could lose part or all of your investment.
Risks Related to Our Technology, Business Model and Industry
Self-driving technology is an emerging technology, and we face significant technical challenges to commercialize our technology. If we cannot successfully overcome those challenges or do so on a timely basis, our ability to grow our business will be negatively impacted.
Solving self-driving is one of the most difficult engineering challenges of our generation. The industry can be characterized by a significant number of technical and commercial challenges, including an expectation
for better-than-a-human
driving performance, large funding requirements, long vehicle development lead times, specialized skills and expertise requirements of personnel, inconsistent and evolving regulatory frameworks, a need to build public trust and brand image, and real world operation of an entirely new technology. If we are not able to overcome these challenges, our business, prospects, financial condition, and results of operations will be negatively impacted and our ability to create a viable business may not materialize at all.
Although we believe that our self-driving systems and supporting technology are promising, we cannot assure you that our technology will succeed commercially. The successful development of our self-driving systems and related technology involves many challenges and uncertainties, including:
 
   
achieving sufficiently safe self-driving system performance as determined by us, government & regulatory agencies, our partners, customers, and the general public;
 
   
finalizing self-driving system design, specification, and vehicle integration;
 
   
successfully completing system testing, validation, and safety approvals;
 
   
obtaining additional approvals, licenses or certifications from regulatory agencies, if required, and maintaining current approvals, licenses or certifications;
 
   
receiving performance by third parties that supports our R&D and commercial activities;
 
   
preserving core intellectual property rights, while obtaining rights from third parties for intellectual property that may be critical to our R&D activities; and
 
   
continuing to fund and maintain our current technology development activities.
We are an early stage company with a history of losses, and we expect to incur significant expenses and continuing losses for the foreseeable future.
We have incurred net losses on an annual basis since our inception. We incurred a net loss of $188.6 million for the three-month period ended March 31, 2021 and net losses of $214.5 million and $94.1 million for the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019, respectively. We believe that we will continue to incur operating and net losses each quarter until at least the time we begin commercial operation of our self-driving technology, which may take longer than we currently expect or may never occur. Even if we successfully develop and sell our self-driving solutions, there can be no assurance that they will be commercially successful. We expect the rate at
 
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which we will incur losses to be substantially higher in future periods as we continue to scale our development and commercialize products. Because we will incur the costs and expenses from these efforts before we receive incremental revenues with respect thereto, our losses in future periods will be significant. In addition, we may find that these efforts are more expensive than we currently anticipate or that these efforts may not result in revenues, which would further increase our losses.
Our limited operating history makes it difficult to evaluate our future prospects and the risks and challenges we may encounter.
We began operations in 2017 and have been focused on developing self-driving technology ever since. This relatively limited operating history makes it difficult to evaluate our future prospects and the risks and challenges we may encounter. Risks and challenges we have faced or expect to face include our ability to:
 
   
design, develop, test, and validate our self-driving technology for commercial applications;
 
   
produce and deliver our technology at an acceptable level of safety and performance;
 
   
properly price our products and services;
 
   
plan for and manage capital expenditures for our current and future products;
 
   
hire, integrate and retain talented people at all levels of our organization;
 
   
forecast our revenue, budget for and manage our expenses;
 
   
attract new partners and retain existing partners;
 
   
navigate an evolving and complex regulatory environment;
 
   
manage our supply chain and supplier relationships related to our current and future products;
 
   
anticipate and respond to macroeconomic changes and changes in the markets in which we operate;
 
   
maintain and enhance the value of our reputation and brand;
 
   
effectively manage our growth and business operations, including the impacts of unforeseen market changes on our business;
 
   
develop and protect intellectual property; and
 
   
successfully develop new solutions, features, and applications to enhance the experience of partners and
end-customers.
If we fail to address the risks and difficulties that we face, including those associated with the challenges listed above, as well as those described elsewhere in this “
Risk Factors
” section, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be adversely affected. Further, because we have limited historical financial data and operate in a rapidly evolving market, any predictions about our future revenue and expenses may not be as accurate as they would be if we had a longer operating history or operated in a more predictable market. We have encountered in the past, and will encounter in the future, risks and uncertainties frequently experienced by growing companies with limited operating histories in rapidly changing industries. If our assumptions regarding these risks and uncertainties, which we use to plan and operate our business, are incorrect or change, or if we do not address these risks successfully, our results of operations could differ materially from our expectations and our business, financial condition and results of operations could be adversely affected.
It is possible that our technology will have more limited performance or may take us longer to complete than is currently projected. This would adversely impact our addressable markets, commercial competitiveness, and business prospects.
Our products and self-driving system are technical and complex, and commercial application requires that we meet very high standards for technology performance and system safety. We may be unable to timely release
 
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new products that meet our intended commercial use cases, and we may therefore experience more limited monetization of our technology. These risks are particularly relevant for factors such as our self-driving system’s operational domain (i.e., the conditions under which our system is designed to operate), which includes variables such as traversable road networks, speeds, and weather patterns. It is possible that there may be additional limitations in our operating capabilities depending upon a number of factors, including, for example, vehicle type (e.g. car, truck) and actor density (e.g. pedestrians, cyclists). If that is the case, we may be more restricted in our addressable market opportunities.
Commercial deployment has taken longer in the self-driving industry than anticipated, and it may take us more time to complete our own technology development and commercialization than is currently projected. The achievement of broadly applicable self-driving technology will require further technology improvements including, for example,
handling non-compliant or
unexpected actor behavior and inclement weather conditions. These improvements may take us longer than expected which would increase our capital requirements for technology development, delay our timeline to commercialization, and reduce the potential financial returns that may be expected from the business.
We operate in a highly competitive market and some market participants have substantially greater resources. If one or more of our competitors commercialize their self-driving technology before we do, develop superior technology, or are perceived to have better technology, our business prospects and financial performance would be adversely affected.
The market for self-driving technology is highly competitive and can be characterized by rapid technological change. Our future success will depend on our ability to develop and commercialize in a timely manner in order to stay ahead of existing and new competitors. Several companies, including, but not limited to, Waymo, GM Cruise, TuSimple, Tesla, Zoox/Amazon, Argo AI, Apple, Motional, Pony.ai, Intel Mobileye, Nuro, and Embark are investing heavily in building this technology. These companies compete with us directly by offering self-driving technology for the same or similar use cases. If our competitors, including those previously mentioned, commercialize their technology before we do, develop superior technology, or are perceived to have better technology, they may capture market opportunities and establish relationships with customers and partners that might otherwise have been available to us.
Material commercialization of self-driving technology first involves pilot deployments and some of our competitors are operating such pilots. Other competitors may initiate similar deployments in various use cases or geographies earlier than we will. Several of these competitors have substantial financial, marketing, R&D, and other resources. In the event that one or many of these competitors broadly commercializes their technology before we do, our business prospects and financial performance would be adversely impacted.
Our services and technology may not be accepted and adopted by the market at the pace we expect or at all.
Self-driving technology is still nascent and is neither generally understood nor universally accepted. We are at risk of adverse publicity that stems from any public incident involving self-driving vehicles (whether involving Aurora or a competitor), which could result in decreased
end-customer
demand for our technology. Part of our commercialization plan includes public awareness and education campaigns, but this guarantees neither public nor customer acceptance of our services. If we cannot gain sufficient trust in our technology, we will be unable to commercialize as intended. We may also experience adverse publicity that argues self-driving technology is replacing human jobs and disrupting the economy. Such media attention could cause current and future partners to terminate their business with us, which would significantly impact our ability to make future sales.
Further, as the market for self-driving cars develops, the differences in the approaches of Aurora and others will become more widely known to suppliers, insurers, regulators and others. Until these distinctions are known and appreciated, the actions of a single market participant may be imputed to the self-driving industry as a whole. As such, as a result of an action or inaction by a third-party, it is possible that suppliers, insurers, regulators and
 
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others may refuse or cease to interact with or conduct business with the self-driving industry as a whole, including Aurora.
If the market does not accept and adopt our services and technology at the pace we expect or at all, it could materially and adversely affect our business, prospects, financial condition and results of operations.
We expect that our business model will become less capital intensive as we transition our business to our Driver as a Service model and if that transition is delayed or does not occur, we will require significant additional capital investment to run our business.
Our business plan envisions
a two-phase process
for ownership and operation of Aurora-powered self-driving vehicles. Early in our commercialization, we intend to own or lease and operate a limited fleet and will invest in self-driving system hardware, base vehicles, and commercial facilities (such as freight terminals). We believe this firsthand experience will help us to harden our operational processes, service level agreements, and enable a more effective transition to working with external partners on operational activities. After this initial period of Aurora ownership and operation, we expect to transition to a Driver as a Service business model. Under this model, one or more third-party partners would own and operate Aurora-powered vehicles and would also manage activities such as financing, maintenance, cleaning, and fleet facilities.
Since it is more capital-intensive for us to own or lease and operate our own fleet of vehicles, any delay in the transition to the Driver as a Service model will require additional investments of capital and could mean we may not be able to reach scale as quickly as projected. In addition, it is possible that we may be required to fund and operate commercial facilities as part of our product offering, as opposed to partnering with third parties. Although we believe, based on partner discussions, that such a transition will be possible in our intended timeframes, there is no guarantee that third parties will be able or willing to own and operate Aurora-powered vehicles as soon or ramp as quickly as expected at desirable commercial terms. Similarly, we expect to partner with other third parties who will own and operate terminal facilities, but we may determine that we will need to own or operate more of these facilities ourselves. Such difficulties could have adverse impacts on our business, prospects, financial condition, and growth potential. As such, this model may present unpredictable challenges associated with third-party dependency which could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
It is possible that Aurora’s self-driving unit economics do not materialize as expected, in particular as we transition to our Driver as a Service model. This could significantly hinder our ability to generate a commercially viable product and adversely affect our business prospects.
Our business model is premised on our future expectations and assumptions regarding unit economics of the Aurora Driver and our transition, including the timing thereof, to our Driver as a Service model. There are uncertainties in these assumptions and we may not be able to achieve the unit economics we expect for many reasons, including but not limited to:
 
   
costs of the self-driving system hardware;
 
   
other fixed and variable costs associated with self-driving vehicle operation;
 
   
useful life;
 
   
vehicle utilization; and
 
   
product pricing.
To manage self-driving hardware costs, we must engineer cost-effective designs for our sensors, computers, and vehicles, achieve adequate scale, and freeze hardware specifications while enabling continued software improvements. In addition, we must continuously push initiatives to optimize supporting cost components such
 
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as vehicle and SDS maintenance, cloud storage, telecom data feed, facilities, cleaning, operations personnel costs, and useful life. This will require significant coordination with our third-party fleet partners and adequate cost management may not materialize as expected or at all, which would have material adverse effects on our business prospects.
Self-driving technology is a new product and the appropriate price points are still being determined. Additionally, increased competition may result in pricing pressure and reduced margins and may impede our ability to increase the revenue of our technology or cause us to lose market share, any of which could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. Unfavorable changes in any of these or other unit economics-related factors, many of which are beyond our control, could materially and adversely affect our business, prospects, financial condition and results of operations.
We are highly dependent on the services of our senior management team and, specifically, our Chief Executive Officer, and if we are not successful in retaining our senior management team and, in particular, our Chief Executive Officer, and in attracting or retaining other highly qualified personnel, we may not be able to successfully implement our business strategy.
Our success depends, in significant part, on the continued services of our senior management team, which has extensive experience in the self-driving industry. The loss of any one or more members of our senior management team, for any reason, including resignation or retirement, could impair our ability to execute our business strategy and could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. In particular, we are highly dependent on Chris Urmson, our Founder, President and Chief Executive Officer, who remains deeply involved in all aspects of our business, including product development. If Mr. Urmson ceased to be involved with Aurora, this would adversely affect our business because his loss could make it more difficult to, among other things, compete with other market participants, manage our R&D activities and retain existing partners or cultivate new ones. Negative public perception of, or negative news related to, Mr. Urmson may adversely affect our brand, relationship with partners or standing in the industry.
Our success similarly hinges on the ability to attract, motivate, develop and retain a sufficient number of other highly skilled personnel, including software, hardware, systems engineering, automotive, safety, operations, design, finance, marketing, and support personnel. Competition for qualified highly skilled personnel can be strong, and we can provide no assurance that we will be successful in attracting or retaining such personnel now or in the future. Employees may be more likely to leave us if the shares of our capital stock they own or the shares of our capital stock underlying their equity incentive awards have significantly reduced in value or the vested shares of our capital stock they own or vested shares of our capital stock underlying their equity incentive awards have significantly appreciated. Many of our employees may receive significant proceeds from sales of our equity in the public markets once the
applicable lock-up
restrictions expire, which may reduce their motivation to continue to work for us. Further, any inability to recruit, develop and retain qualified employees may result in high employee turnover and may force us to pay significantly higher wages, which may harm our profitability.
Additionally, we do not carry key man insurance for any of our management executives, and the loss of any key employee or our inability to recruit, develop and retain these individuals as needed, could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Risks Related to Our Business and Industry
Our business plans require a significant amount of capital. In addition, our future capital needs may require us to sell additional equity or debt securities that may dilute our stockholders.
The fact that we have a limited operating history means we have limited historical data on the demand for our products and services. As a result, our future capital requirements are uncertain and actual capital
 
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requirements may be different from those we currently anticipate. We expect to continue investing in research and development to improve our self-driving technology. We expect we will need to seek equity or debt financing to fund a portion of our future expenditures. Such financing might not be available to us in a timely manner, on terms that are acceptable, or at all.
Our ability to obtain the necessary financing to carry out our business plan is subject to a number of factors, including general market conditions and investor acceptance of our business model. These factors may make the timing, amount, terms and conditions of such financing unattractive or unavailable to us. If we are unable to raise sufficient funds, we will have to significantly reduce our spending, delay or cancel our planned activities, or substantially change our corporate structure.
We may experience difficulties in managing our growth and expanding our operations.
We expect to experience significant growth in the scope and nature of our operations. Our ability to manage our operations and future growth will require us to continue to improve our operational, financial and management controls, compliance programs and systems automation. We are currently in the process of strengthening our compliance programs, including in relation to export controls, privacy and cybersecurity and anti-corruption. We will also need to reduce our reliance on manual operations in the areas of billing and reporting and make certain other improvements to support our complex arrangements and the rules governing revenue and expense recognition for our future operations. We may not be able to implement improvements in an efficient or timely manner and may discover deficiencies in existing controls, programs, systems and procedures, which could have an adverse effect on the accuracy of our reporting, business relationships, reputation and financial results.
Our operating and financial results projections rely in large part upon assumptions and analyses developed by us. If these assumptions or analyses prove to be incorrect, our actual results of operations may be materially different from our projections and our estimates of certain financial metrics may prove inaccurate.
We use various estimates in formulating our business plans. We base our estimates upon a number of assumptions that are inherently subject to significant business and economic uncertainties and contingencies, many of which are beyond our control. Our estimates therefore may prove inaccurate, causing the actual amount to differ from our estimates. These factors include, without limitation:
 
   
assumptions around vehicle miles traveled (“VMT”);
 
   
the degree of utilization achieved by our self-driving technology;
 
   
the price our customers are willing to pay;
 
   
the timing and breadth of our technology’s operating domain and product models;
 
   
operational costs of our self-driving technology and their useful life;
 
   
growth in core development and operating expenses;
 
   
which elements of service are delivered by Aurora versus our partners, and associated impact on expenses and capital requirements;
 
   
the extent to which our technology is successfully and efficiently operationalized by our fleet partners, and our market penetration more broadly;
 
   
the timing of when our partners
and end-customers adopt
our technology on a commercial basis which could be delayed for regulatory, safety or reliability issues unrelated to our technology;
 
   
the timing of future self-driving system hardware generations and vehicle platforms;
 
   
competitive pricing pressures, including from established and future competitors;
 
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whether we can obtain sufficient capital to continue investing in core technology development and sustain and grow our business;
 
   
the overall strength and stability of domestic and international markets, including, but not limited to trucking, passenger mobility, and local goods delivery; and
 
   
other risk factors set forth in this prospectus.
In particular, our total addressable market and opportunity estimates, growth forecasts, pricing, cost, and customer demand included in this registration statement are subject to significant uncertainty and are based on assumptions and estimates that may prove inaccurate. The projections, forecasts and estimates in this registration statement relating to the expected size and growth of the markets for self-driving technology may prove similarly imprecise. We are pursuing prospects in multiple markets that are undergoing rapid changes, including in technological and regulatory areas, and it is difficult to predict the timing and size of the opportunities.
Unfavorable changes in any of the above or other factors, including around the total addressable market and market opportunity, most of which are beyond our control, could materially and adversely affect our business, prospects, financial condition and results of operations.
As part of growing our business, we have in the past and may in the future make acquisitions. If we fail to successfully select, execute or integrate our acquisitions, it could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations, and our stock price could decline.
From time to time, we may undertake acquisitions to add new products and technologies, acquire talent, form new strategic partnerships, or enter into new markets or geographies. In addition to possible stockholder approval, we may need approvals and licenses from relevant government authorities for such future acquisitions and to comply with any applicable laws and regulations, which could result in increased delay and costs, and may disrupt our business strategy if such approvals are ultimately denied. Furthermore, acquisitions and the subsequent integration of new assets, businesses, key personnel, partners
and end-customers, vendors
and suppliers require significant attention from our management and could result in a diversion of resources from our existing business, which in turn could have an adverse effect on our operations. Additionally, acquired assets or businesses may not generate the financial results we expect. Key personnel or large numbers of employees who join Aurora through acquisitions may decide to leave Aurora to work for other businesses or competitors of Aurora, thereby diminishing the value of our acquisitions. Acquisitions could result in the use of substantial amounts of cash, potentially dilutive issuances of equity securities, the occurrence of significant goodwill impairment charges, amortization expenses for other intangible assets and exposure to potential unknown liabilities of the acquired business. For example, in January 2021, Aurora acquired Uber’s self driving unit, Apparate, an acquisition for which many of the risks outlined above were, and continue to be, present. Apparate has a history of financial losses, which have (and will continue to) lead to increased losses for Aurora (versus if Aurora had not acquired Apparate), and which have and will require increased cash spending by Aurora. There are risks in retaining and integrating key personnel and teams, and risks and delay involved in properly and efficiently aligning and utilizing the teams of the combined entity. Further, Apparate and Aurora have a substantial amount of software, hardware, services and systems that are redundant, or not necessarily complementary. Additionally, the acquisition and integration processes create a risk that management and employees of Aurora become distracted. Finally, the costs of identifying and consummating acquisitions may be significant. Failure to successfully identify, complete, manage and integrate acquisitions could materially and adversely affect our business, prospects, financial condition and results of operations, and could cause our stock price to decline.
 
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Our business is subject to the risks of earthquakes, fire, floods and other natural catastrophic events, global pandemics, and interruptions
by man-made
problems, such as terrorism. Material disruptions of our business or information systems resulting from these events could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
A significant natural disaster, such as an earthquake, fire, flood, hurricane or significant power outage or other similar events, such as infectious disease outbreaks or pandemic events, including
the COVID-19
pandemic and its aftermath, could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
The COVID-19
pandemic and its aftermath may have the effect of heightening many of the other risks described in this “
Risk Factors
” section, such as the demand for our products, our ability to achieve or maintain profitability and our ability to raise additional capital in the future. We further note we have several offices located in the San Francisco Bay Area, a region known for seismic activity. In addition, natural disasters, acts of terrorism or war could cause disruptions in our remaining operations, our or our partners’ businesses, our suppliers’ or the economy as a whole. We also rely on information technology systems to communicate among our workforce and with third parties. Any disruption to our communications, whether caused by a natural disaster or
by man-made
problems, such as power disruptions, could adversely affect our business. We do not have a formal disaster recovery plan or policy in place and do not currently require that our partners have such plans or policies in place. To the extent that any such disruptions result in development or commercialization delays or impede our partners’ and suppliers’ ability to timely deliver product components, or the deployment of our products, this could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. The spread
of COVID-19
caused us to modify our business practices (including reducing employee travel, recommending that
all non-essential
personnel work from home and cancellation or reduction of physical participation in activities, meetings, events and conferences), and we may take further actions as may be required by government authorities or that we determine are in the best interests of our employees, partners
and end-customers,
suppliers, and business partners.
The COVID-19
pandemic could limit the ability of our partners, suppliers, and business partners to perform, including our ability to
conduct on-road
and track operations for development testing.
Even after
the COVID-19 pandemic
has subsided, we may continue to experience an adverse impact to our business as a result of its global economic impact, including any recession that has occurred or may occur in the future. We do not yet know the full extent
of COVID-19’s
impact on our business, our operations, or the global economy as a whole. However, the effects could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations, and we will continue to monitor the situation closely.
Interruption or failure of Amazon Web Services or other information technology and communications systems that we rely upon could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We currently rely on Amazon Web Services, or AWS, to host our technology and support our technology development. The availability and effectiveness of our services depend on the continued operation of AWS, information technology, and communications systems. Our systems will be vulnerable to damage, interruption or any other compromise as the result of, among others, physical theft, fire, terrorist attacks, natural disasters, power loss, war, telecommunications failures, viruses, denial or degradation of service attacks, ransomware, social engineering schemes, insider theft or misuse or other attempts to harm our systems. We utilize reputable third-party service providers or vendors for all of our data other than our source code, and these providers could also be vulnerable to harms similar to those that could damage our systems, including sabotage and intentional acts of vandalism causing potential disruptions. It may become increasingly difficult to maintain and improve our performance, especially during peak usage times, as we expand the usage of our platform. Some of our systems will not be fully redundant, and our disaster recovery planning cannot account for all eventualities. Any problems with our third-party cloud hosting providers could result in lengthy interruptions in our business.
 
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We are subject to cybersecurity risks to operational systems, security systems, infrastructure, integrated software and partners and
end-customers data
processed by us or third-party vendors or suppliers and any material failure, weakness, interruption, cyber event, incident or breach of security could prevent us from effectively operating our business.
We are at risk for interruptions, outages and breaches of: operational systems, including business, financial, accounting, product development, data processing or production processes, owned by us or our third-party vendors or suppliers; facility security systems, owned by us or our third-party vendors or
suppliers; in-product technology
owned by us or our third-party vendors or suppliers; our integrated software; or partners
or end-customers or
driver data that we process or our third-party vendors or suppliers process on our behalf. Such cyber incidents could materially disrupt operational systems; result in loss of intellectual property, trade secrets or other proprietary or competitively sensitive information; compromise certain information of
partners, end-customers, employees,
suppliers, drivers or others; jeopardize the security of our facilities; or affect the performance
of in-product technology.
A cyber incident could be caused by disasters, insiders (through inadvertence or with malicious intent) or malicious third parties (including nation-states or nation-state supported actors) using sophisticated, targeted methods to circumvent firewalls, encryption and other security defenses, including hacking, fraud, trickery or other forms of deception. The techniques used by cyber attackers change frequently and may be difficult to detect for long periods of time. Although we maintain and continue to develop information technology measures designed to protect us against intellectual property theft, data breaches and other cyber incidents, including a formal incident response plan, such measures will require updates and improvements, and we cannot guarantee that such measures will be adequate to detect, prevent or mitigate cyber incidents. The implementation, maintenance, segregation and improvement of these systems requires significant management time, support and cost. Moreover, there are inherent risks associated with developing, improving, expanding and updating current systems, including the disruption of our data management, procurement, production execution, finance, supply chain and sales and service processes. These risks may affect our ability to manage our data and inventory, procure parts or supplies or produce, sell, deliver and service our solutions, adequately protect our intellectual property or achieve and maintain compliance with, or realize available benefits under, applicable laws, regulations and contracts. We cannot be sure that the systems upon which we rely, including those of our third-party vendors or suppliers, will be effectively implemented, maintained or expanded as planned. If we do not successfully implement, maintain or expand these systems as planned, our operations may be disrupted, our ability to accurately and timely report our financial results could be impaired, and deficiencies may arise in our internal control over financial reporting, which may impact our ability to certify our financial results. Moreover, our proprietary information or intellectual property could be compromised or misappropriated, and our reputation may be adversely affected. If these systems do not operate as we expect them to, we may be required to expend significant resources to make corrections or find alternative sources for performing these functions.
A significant cyber incident could impact production capability, harm our reputation, cause us to breach our contracts with other parties or subject us to regulatory actions or litigation, any of which could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. In addition, our insurance coverage for cyber-attacks may not be sufficient to cover all the losses we may experience as a result of a cyber incident.
Unauthorized control or manipulation of systems in autonomous vehicles may cause them to operate improperly or not at all, or compromise their safety and data security, which could result in loss of confidence in us and our products and harm our business.
There have been reports of vehicles being “hacked” to grant access to and operation of the vehicles to unauthorized persons. Aurora-powered vehicles contain complex IT systems and are designed
with built-in data
connectivity. We are implementing security measures intended to prevent unauthorized access to the information technology networks and systems installed in our vehicles. However, hackers or unauthorized third parties may attempt to gain unauthorized access to modify, alter, and use such networks and systems to gain control of, or to
 
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change, our vehicles’ functionality, user interface and performance characteristics, or to access data stored in or generated by our products. As techniques used to obtain unauthorized access to or sabotage systems change frequently and may not be known until launched against us or our third-party service providers, there can be no assurance that we will be able to anticipate, or implement adequate measures to protect against, these attacks. Any such security incidents could result in unexpected control of or changes to the vehicles’ functionality and safe operation and could result in legal claims or proceedings and negative publicity, which would negatively affect our brand and harm our business, prospects, financial condition, and operating results.
Failures, or perceived failures, to comply with privacy, data protection, and information security requirements in the variety of jurisdictions in which we operate, or may operate, may adversely impact our business, and such legal requirements are evolving, uncertain and may require improvements in, or changes to, our policies and operations.
Our current and potential future operations and sales subject us to laws and regulations addressing privacy and the collection, use, storage, disclosure, transfer and protection of a variety of types of data. For example, the European Commission has adopted the General Data Protection Regulation and California enacted the California Consumer Privacy Act of 2018, both of which provide for potentially material penalties
for non-compliance.
We may also be subject to additional privacy regulations in the future, including the California Privacy Rights Act of 2020 (when it goes into effect in 2023) or the Virginia Consumer Data Protection Act (when it goes into effect in 2023). These regimes may, among other things, impose data security requirements, disclosure requirements, and restrictions on data collection, uses, and sharing that may impact our operations and the development of our business. While, generally, we do not have access to, collect, store, process, or share information collected by our solutions unless our partners choose to proactively provide such information to us, our products may evolve both to address potential partner requirements or to add new features and functionality that may change our privacy obligations. Therefore, the full impact of these privacy regimes on our business is rapidly evolving across jurisdictions and remains uncertain at this time.
We may also be affected by cyber-attacks and other means of gaining unauthorized access to our technology, systems, and data. For instance, cyber criminals, insiders or unauthorized third parties may target us or third parties with which we have business relationships to obtain data, or in a manner that disrupts our operations or compromises our products or the systems into which our products are integrated.
We are assessing the continually evolving privacy and data security regimes and measures we believe are appropriate in response. Since these data security regimes are evolving, uncertain and complex, especially for a global business like ours, we may need to update or enhance our compliance measures as our products, markets
and end-customer demands
further develop, and these updates or enhancements may require implementation costs. In addition, we may not be able to monitor and react to all developments in a timely manner. The compliance measures we do adopt may prove ineffective. Any failure, or perceived failure, by us to comply with current and future regulatory, partner
or end-customer-driven privacy,
data protection, and information security requirements, or to prevent or mitigate security breaches, cyber-attacks, or improper access to, use of, or disclosure of data, or any security issues or cyber-attacks affecting us, could result in significant liability, costs (including the costs of mitigation and recovery), and a material loss of revenue resulting from the adverse impact on our reputation and brand, loss of proprietary information and data, disruption to our business and relationships, and diminished ability to retain or attract partners
and end-customers. Such
events may result in governmental enforcement actions and prosecutions, private litigation, fines and penalties or adverse publicity, and could cause partners
and end-customers to
lose trust in us, which could have an adverse effect on our reputation and business.
 
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Our future insurance coverage may not be adequate to protect us from all business risks or may be prohibitively expensive.
We may be subject, in the ordinary course of business, to losses resulting from product liability, accidents, acts of God, and other claims against us, for which we may have no insurance coverage. Further, because we operate in a new and thus inherently risky industry, insurance policies may not be available to us on terms and rates that are acceptable to us or at all. In addition, as a general matter, the policies that we do have may include significant deductibles or self-insured retentions, and we cannot be certain that our future insurance coverage will be sufficient to cover all future losses or claims against us. A loss that is uninsured or which exceeds policy limits may require us to pay substantial amounts, which could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. Further, actions or inactions of others in our industry, through no fault of our own, may materially increase the cost of insurance and/or materially decrease the coverages available to us on commercially reasonable terms.
Any financial or economic crisis, or perceived threat of such a crisis, including a significant decrease in consumer confidence, could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
In recent years, the United States and global economies suffered dramatic downturns as the result of
the COVID-19 pandemic,
a deterioration in the credit markets and related financial crisis as well as a variety of other factors including, among other things, extreme volatility in security prices, severely diminished liquidity and credit availability, ratings downgrades of certain investments and declining valuations of others. The United States and certain foreign governments have taken unprecedented actions in an attempt to address and rectify these extreme market and economic conditions by providing liquidity and stability to the financial markets. If the actions taken by these governments are not successful, the return of adverse economic conditions may negatively impact the demand for our technology and may negatively impact our ability to raise capital, if needed, on a timely basis and on acceptable terms or at all.
Unanticipated changes in effective tax rates, adverse outcomes resulting from examination of our income, changes in tax laws or regulations, changes in our ability to utilize our net operating loss, or
other tax-related changes
could materially and adversely affect our business, prospects, financial condition and results of operations.
We will be subject to income taxes in the United States and other jurisdictions, and our tax liabilities will be subject to the allocation of expenses in differing jurisdictions. Our future effective tax rates could be subject to volatility or adversely affected by a number of factors, including changes in the valuation of our deferred tax assets and liabilities; expected timing and amount of the release of any tax valuation allowances; tax effects of stock-based compensation; changes in tax laws, regulations or interpretations thereof; or lower than anticipated future earnings in jurisdictions where we have lower statutory tax rates and higher than anticipated future earnings in jurisdictions where we have higher statutory tax rates.
In addition, we may be subject to audits of our income, sales and other transaction taxes by taxing authorities. Outcomes from these audits could materially and adversely affect our business, prospects, financial condition and results of operations.
Our future effective tax rates could be affected by changes in the mix of earnings in countries with differing statutory tax rates, changes in the valuation of deferred tax assets and liabilities and changes in tax laws or their interpretation. In addition, we may be subject to income tax audits by various tax jurisdictions. Although we believe our income tax liabilities are reasonably estimated and accounted for in accordance with applicable laws and principles, an adverse resolution by one or more taxing authorities could have a material impact on the results of our operations.
In general, under Section 382 of the Code, a corporation that undergoes an “ownership change” is subject to limitations on its ability to use
its pre-change net
operating loss carryforwards, NOLs, to offset future taxable income. The limitations apply if a corporation undergoes an “ownership change,” which is generally defined as a
 
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greater than 50 percentage point change (by value) in its equity ownership by certain stockholders over a three-year period. If we have experienced an ownership change at any time since our incorporation, we may already be subject to limitations on our ability to utilize our existing NOLs and other tax attributes to offset taxable income or tax liability. In addition, the Business Combination and future changes in our stock ownership, which may be outside of our control, may trigger an ownership change. Similar provisions of state tax law may also apply to limit our use of accumulated state tax attributes. As a result, even if we earn net taxable income in the future, our ability to use these or
our pre-change NOL
carryforwards and other tax attributes to offset such taxable income or tax liability may be subject to limitations, which could potentially result in increased future income tax liability to us.
There is also a risk that changes in law or regulatory changes made in response to the need for some jurisdictions to raise additional revenue to help counter the fiscal impact from
the COVID-19 pandemic
or for other unforeseen reasons, including suspensions on the use of net operating losses or tax credits, possibly with retroactive effect, may result in our existing net operating losses or tax credits expiring or otherwise being unavailable to offset future income tax liabilities. A temporary suspension of the use of certain net operating losses and tax credits has been enacted in California, and other states may enact suspensions as well.
Risks Related to Our Dependence on Third Parties
Our success is contingent on our ability to successfully maintain, manage, execute and expand on our existing partnerships and obtain new partnerships.
Our self-driving technology is integrated into the vehicles of our OEM partners, while logistics services partners, ride-sharing partners and fleet service partners can act as both a customer and an operator of Aurora-powered vehicles. While we are providing our self-driving technology to these partners, they are simultaneously providing their vehicles, fleet operational activities, and, in some cases, access to
end-customers.
In order for this business model to be successful, we will need to enter into definitive long-term contracts and commercial arrangements with partners such as PACCAR, Uber, Toyota and Volvo, which expand upon the current agreements and historic working relationships we have in place. In the event such contracts do not materialize, we may not be able to implement our business strategy in the timeframe anticipated, or at all. If we are unable to enter into definitive agreements or are only able to do so on terms that are unfavorable to us, we may not be able to timely identify adequate strategic relationship opportunities, or form strategic relationships, and consequently, we may not be able to fully carry out our business plans. Accordingly, investors should not place undue reliance on our statements about our development plans and partnerships or their feasibility in the timeframe anticipated, or at all.
Partners
and end-customers may
be less likely to purchase our products if they are not convinced that our business will succeed or that our service, technology, and other operations will continue in the long term. Similarly, suppliers and other third parties will be less likely to invest time and resources in developing business relationships with us if they are not convinced that our business will succeed. Accordingly, in order to build and maintain our business, we must maintain confidence among
partners, end-customers, suppliers,
analysts, ratings agencies and other parties in our products, long-term financial viability and business prospects. Maintaining such confidence may be particularly complicated by certain factors including those that are largely outside of our control, such as our limited operating history,
end-customer unfamiliarity
with our technology, any delays in scaling production, delivery and service operations to meet demand, competition and uncertainty regarding the future of self-driving vehicles or our other services compared with market expectations.
We are dependent on our suppliers, some of which are single or limited source suppliers, and the inability of these suppliers to produce and deliver necessary and industrialized components at prices and volumes and on terms acceptable to us could materially and adversely affect our business, prospects, financial condition and results of operations.
While we plan to obtain components from multiple sources whenever desirable, some of the components used in our hardware and technology will be purchased from a single supplier. We refer to these component
 
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suppliers as our single source suppliers. These components are susceptible to supply shortages, long lead times for components, and supply changes, any of which could disrupt our supply chain and could delay commercialization of our products to users. For example, the Aurora Driver relies on single source suppliers for several components including GPU microchips which we use for machine learning inference, vehicle gateway electronic control units, and automotive radar sensors.
We are reliant on third-party suppliers to design, develop, industrialize and manufacture components for us. In order for these suppliers to undertake the investment needed to produce these components, they may require us to commit to terms, pricing or purchase volumes that are not acceptable to us.
While we believe that we may be able to establish alternate supply relationships and can obtain or engineer replacement components for our single source and other components, we may be unable to do so in the short term (or at all) at prices or quality levels and/or on terms that are favorable to us and we may experience significant delays
while re-engineering our
system to accept any replacement parts.
Manufacturing in collaboration with partners is subject to risks.
Our business model relies on outsourced manufacturing of vehicles and will include outsourced manufacturing of our self-driving system hardware and vehicle integration. The cost of tooling a manufacturing facility with a collaboration partner is high, but the exact dollar value will not be known until we enter into specific manufacturing agreements. Collaboration with third parties to manufacture vehicles and self-driving system hardware is subject to risks that are outside of our control. We have in the past, and could in the future, experience delays in development and production when and if our partners do not meet agreed upon timelines or experience capacity constraints. There is a risk of potential disputes with partners, which could stop or slow vehicle production, and we could be affected by adverse publicity related to our partners, whether or not such publicity is related to such third parties’ collaboration with us. In addition, we cannot guarantee that our suppliers will not deviate from agreed-upon quality standards.
We may be unable to enter into agreements with manufacturers on terms and conditions acceptable to us and therefore we may need to contract with other third parties or significantly add to our own production capacity. We may not be able to engage other third parties or establish or expand our own production capacity to meet our needs on acceptable terms, or at all. The expense and time required to adequately complete any transition may be greater than anticipated. Any of the foregoing could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Risks Related to Our Legal and Regulatory Environment
Burdensome regulations, inconsistent regulations, or a failure to receive regulatory approvals of our technology could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operation.
There has been relatively little mandatory government regulation of the self-driving
industry to-date. Currently,
there are no Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards (“FMVSS”) that relate to the performance of self-driving technology. Further, there are currently no widely accepted uniform standards to certify self-driving technology and its commercial use on public roads. While our team includes nationally recognized safety experts and we have built organizational, operational, and safety processes to ensure that the performance of our technology meets rigorous standards, there can be no assurance that these measures will meet future regulatory requirements enacted by government bodies nor that future regulatory requirements will not inherently limit the operation and commercialization of self-driving technology. In some jurisdictions, we could be required to present our own safety justification and evidence base, and in other areas it is possible that we may be required to pass specific self-driving safety tests. We have not yet tested our technology to the full extent possible, in all conditions under which we anticipate operations to occur. The failure to pass these safety tests or receive appropriate regulatory approvals for commercialization would adversely impact our ability to generate revenue at the rate we anticipate.
 
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It is also possible that future self-driving regulations are not standardized, and our technology becomes subject to differing regulations across jurisdictions (e.g. federal, state, local, and international). For example, in Europe, certain vehicle safety regulations apply to automated braking and steering systems, and certain treaties also restrict the legality of certain higher levels of automation, while certain U.S. states have legal restrictions on automation, and many other states are considering them. Such a regulatory patchwork could hinder the commercial deployment of our technology and have adverse effects on our business prospects and financial condition.
We are also subject to laws and regulations that commonly apply
to e-commerce businesses,
such as those related to privacy and personal information, tax and consumer protection. These laws and regulations vary from one jurisdiction to another and future legislative and regulatory action, court decisions or other governmental action, which may be affected by, among other things, political pressures, attitudes and climates, as well as personal biases, may have a material impact on our operations and financial results.
We are subject to governmental export and import control laws and regulations. Our failure to comply with these laws and regulations could materially and adversely affect our business, prospects, financial condition and results of operations.
Our products and solutions are subject to export control and import laws and regulations, including the U.S. Export Administration Regulations, U.S. Customs regulations and various economic and trade sanctions regulations administered by the U.S. Treasury Department’s Office of Foreign Assets Controls. U.S. export control laws and regulations and economic sanctions prohibit the shipment of certain products and services to U.S. embargoed or sanctioned countries, governments and persons. In addition, complying with export control and sanctions regulations for a particular geography may be time-consuming and result in the delay or loss of revenue opportunities. Exports of our products and technology must be made in compliance with these laws and regulations. If we fail to comply with these laws and regulations, we and certain of our employees could be subject to substantial civil or criminal penalties, including the possible loss of export or import privileges, fines, which may be imposed on us and responsible employees or managers and, in extreme cases, the incarceration of responsible employees or managers.
We may become involved in legal and regulatory proceedings and commercial or contractual disputes, which could have an adverse effect on our profitability and consolidated financial position.
We may be, from time to time, involved in litigation, regulatory proceedings and commercial or contractual disputes that may be significant. These matters may include, without limitation, disputes with our suppliers and partners, intellectual property claims, stockholder litigation, government investigations, class action lawsuits, personal injury claims, environmental issues, customs and value-added tax disputes and employment and tax issues. In addition, we have in the past and could face in the future a variety of labor and employment claims against us, which could include but is not limited to general discrimination, wage and hour, privacy, ERISA or disability claims. In such matters, government agencies or private parties may seek to recover from us very large, indeterminate amounts in penalties or monetary damages (including, in some cases, treble or punitive damages) or seek to limit our operations in some way. These types of disputes could require significant management time and attention or could involve substantial legal liability, adverse regulatory outcomes, and/or substantial expenses to defend. Often these proceedings raise complex factual and legal issues and create risks and uncertainties. No assurances can be given that any proceedings and claims will not have a material and adverse impact on our business, financial condition or results of operations or that our established reserves or our available insurance will mitigate this impact.
Changes to global political, regulatory and economic conditions or foreign laws and policies, or interpretation of existing foreign laws and policies, could materially and adversely affect our business, prospects, financial condition and results of operations.
Changes in global political, regulatory and economic conditions or in laws and policies governing foreign trade, research, manufacturing, development, technology, and investment in the territories or countries where we
 
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currently purchase our components, sell our products or conduct our business could adversely affect our business. The U.S. has recently instituted or proposed changes in trade policies that include the negotiation or termination of trade agreements, the imposition of higher tariffs on imports into the U.S., economic sanctions on individuals, corporations or countries, and other government regulations affecting trade between the U.S. and other countries where we conduct our business. A number of other nations have proposed or instituted similar measures directed at trade with the United States in response. As a result of these developments, there may be greater restrictions and economic disincentives on international trade that could adversely affect our business. Additionally, certain existing and future foreign political, regulatory and economic conditions may make it impractical or impossible to launch in certain markets, may delay our launch in certain markets, or may impose onerous conditions to launch in such markets (e.g., requiring a local partner and/or the disclosure of sensitive intellectual property assets). It may be time-consuming and expensive for us to alter our business operations to adapt to or comply with any such changes, and any failure to do so could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We are subject to, and must remain in compliance with, numerous laws and governmental regulations concerning the manufacturing, use, distribution and sale of our products. Some of our partners also require that we comply with their own unique requirements relating to these matters.
We develop and plan to sell technology that contains electronic components, and such components may be subject to or may contain materials that are subject to government regulation in both the locations where manufacture and assembly of our products takes place, as well as the locations where we sell our products. This is a complex process which requires continual monitoring of regulations to ensure that we and our suppliers are in compliance with existing regulations in each market where we operate and where we intend to operate. If there is an unanticipated new regulation that significantly impacts our use and sourcing of various components or requires more expensive components, that regulation could materially and adversely affect our business, prospects, financial condition and results of operations. If we fail to adhere to new regulations or fail to continually monitor the updates, we may be subject to litigation, loss of partners or negative publicity and could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We are subject to environmental regulation and may incur substantial costs.
We are subject to federal, state, local and foreign laws, regulations and ordinances relating to the protection of the environment, including those relating to emissions to the air, discharges to surface and subsurface waters, safe drinking water, greenhouse gases and the management of hazardous substances, oils and waste materials. Federal, state and local laws and regulations relating to the protection of the environment may require the current or previous owner or operator of real estate to investigate and remediate hazardous or toxic substances or petroleum product releases at or from the property. Under federal law, generators of waste materials, and current and former owners or operators of facilities, can be subject to liability for investigation and remediation costs at locations that have been identified as requiring response actions. Compliance with environmental laws and regulations can require significant expenditures. In addition, we could incur costs to comply with such current or future laws and regulations, the violation of which could lead to substantial fines and penalties.
We may have to pay governmental entities or third parties for property damage and for investigation and remediation costs that they incurred in connection with any contamination at our current and former properties without regard to whether we knew of or caused the presence of the contaminants. Liability under these laws may be strict, joint and several, meaning that we could be liable for the costs of cleaning up environmental contamination regardless of fault or the amount of waste directly attributable to us. Even if more than one person may have been responsible for the contamination, each person covered by these environmental laws may be held responsible for all of the
clean-up
costs incurred. Environmental liabilities could arise and have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and performance. We do not believe, however, that pending environmental regulatory developments in this area will have a material effect on our capital expenditures or otherwise materially adversely affect its operations, operating costs, or competitive position.
 
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We are subject to anti-corruption, anti-bribery, anti-money laundering, financial and economic sanctions and similar laws,
and non-compliance with such
laws can subject us to administrative, civil and criminal fines and penalties, collateral consequences, remedial measures and legal expenses, all of which could materially and adversely affect our business, prospects, financial condition and results of operations and also our reputation.
We are subject to anti-corruption, anti-bribery, anti-money laundering, financial and economic sanctions and similar laws and regulations in various jurisdictions in which we conduct or in the future may conduct activities, including the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, FCPA, the U.K. Bribery Act 2010, and other anti-corruption laws and regulations. The FCPA and the U.K. Bribery Act 2010 prohibit us and our officers, directors, employees and business partners acting on our behalf, including agents, from corruptly offering, promising, authorizing or providing anything of value to a “foreign official” for the purposes of influencing official decisions or obtaining or retaining business or otherwise obtaining favorable treatment. The FCPA also requires companies to make and keep books, records and accounts that accurately reflect transactions and dispositions of assets and to maintain a system of adequate internal accounting controls. The U.K. Bribery Act also prohibits
non-governmental
“commercial” bribery and soliciting or accepting bribes. A violation of these laws or regulations could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations and also our reputation. Our policies and procedures designed to ensure compliance with these regulations may not be sufficient and our directors, officers, employees, representatives, consultants, agents, and business partners could engage in improper conduct for which we may be held responsible.
Non-compliance with
anti-corruption, anti-bribery, anti-money laundering or financial and economic sanctions laws could subject us to whistleblower complaints, adverse media coverage, investigations, and severe administrative, civil and criminal sanctions, collateral consequences, remedial measures and legal expenses, all of which could materially and adversely affect our business, prospects, financial condition and results of operations and also our reputation. In addition, changes in economic sanctions laws in the future could adversely impact our business and investments in Aurora common stock.
Our business may be adversely affected if our lidar technology fails to comply with the regulatory requirements under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic ACT or otherwise by the FDA.
Our lidar technology is subject to the Electronic Product Radiation Control Provisions of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, as electronic product radiation includes laser technology. Regulations governing these products are intended to protect the public from hazardous or unnecessary exposure and are enforced by the FDA. Manufacturers are required to certify in product labeling and reports to the FDA that their products comply with applicable performance standards as well as maintain manufacturing, testing, and distribution records for their products. Failure to comply with these requirements could result in enforcement action by the FDA, which could require us to cease distribution of our products, recall or remediate products already distributed to partners
or end-customers,
or subject us to FDA enforcement.
We may be subject to product liability that could result in significant direct or indirect costs, which could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Our self-driving technology presents the risk of significant injury, including fatalities. We may be subject to claims if our technology is involved in an accident and persons are injured or purport to be injured. The occurrence of any errors or defects in our products could make us liable for damages and legal claims. In addition, we could incur significant costs to correct such issues, potentially including product recalls. Any negative publicity related to the perceived quality of our technology could affect our brand image, partner
and end-customer demand,
and could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. Also, liability claims may result in litigation, including class actions, the occurrence of which could be costly, lengthy and distracting and could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
 
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Any product recall of ours or our partners in the future may result in adverse publicity, damage our brand and could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. In the future, we may voluntarily or involuntarily initiate a recall if any vehicles powered by our self-driving technology prove to be defective
or non-compliant with
applicable federal motor vehicle safety standards. Such recalls involve significant expense and diversion of management attention and other resources, which could materially and adversely affect our brand image in our target markets, as well as our business, prospects, financial condition and results of operations.
Once we commercialize our technology, we may be required to obtain specialized insurance, which may not be available to the capacity or on the terms that we require to achieve the economics we expect. Further, any insurance that we carry may not be sufficient or it may not apply to all situations. Similarly, our partners could be subjected to claims as a result of such accidents and bring legal claims against us to attempt to hold us liable. Any of these events could materially and adversely affect our brand, relationships with partners, business, financial condition or results of operations.
Risks Related to Our Intellectual Property
Despite the actions we are taking to defend and protect our intellectual property, we may not be able to adequately protect or enforce our intellectual property rights or prevent unauthorized parties from copying or reverse engineering our solutions. Our efforts to protect and enforce our intellectual property rights and prevent third parties from violating our rights may be costly.
The success of our products and our business depends in part on our ability to obtain patents and other intellectual property rights and maintain adequate legal protection for our products in the United States and other international jurisdictions. We rely on a combination of patent, service mark, trademark and trade secret laws, as well as confidentiality procedures and contractual restrictions, to establish and protect our proprietary rights, all of which provide only limited protection.
We cannot assure you that any patents will be issued with respect to our currently pending patent applications or that any trademarks will be registered with respect to our currently pending applications in a manner that gives us adequate defensive protection or competitive advantages, if at all, or that any patents issued to us or any trademarks registered by us will not be challenged, invalidated or circumvented. We have filed for patents and trademarks in the United States and in certain international jurisdictions, but such protections may not be available in all countries in which we operate or in which we seek to enforce our intellectual property rights, or may be difficult to enforce in practice. Our currently-issued
and applied-for
patent and trademark registrations and applications, and any future patents and trademarks that may be issued, registered or applied for, as applicable, may not provide sufficiently broad protection or may not prove to be enforceable in actions against alleged infringers. We also cannot be certain that the steps we have taken will prevent unauthorized use of our technology or the reverse engineering of our technology. Moreover, others may independently develop technologies that are competitive to us or infringe our intellectual property.
The protection against unauthorized use of our intellectual property, products and other proprietary rights is expensive and difficult, particularly internationally. We believe that our patents are foundational in the area of self-driving technology. Unauthorized parties may attempt to copy or reverse engineer our technology or certain aspects of our solutions that we consider proprietary. Litigation may be necessary in the future to enforce or defend our intellectual property rights, to prevent unauthorized parties from copying or reverse engineering our solutions, to determine the validity and scope of the proprietary rights of others or to block the importation of infringing products into the United States.
Any such litigation, whether initiated by us or a third party, could result in substantial costs and diversion of management resources, either of which could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. Even if we obtain favorable outcomes in litigation, we may not be able to obtain adequate remedies, especially in the context of unauthorized parties copying or reverse engineering our solutions.
 
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Further, many of our current and potential competitors have the ability to dedicate substantially greater resources to defending intellectual property infringement claims and to enforcing their intellectual property rights than we have. Attempts to enforce our rights against third parties could also provoke these third parties to assert their own intellectual property or other rights against us or result in a holding that invalidates or narrows the scope of our rights, in whole or in part. Effective patent, trademark, service mark, copyright and trade secret protection may not be available in every country in which our products are available, and competitors based in other countries may sell infringing products in one or more markets. Failure to adequately protect our intellectual property rights could result in our competitors offering similar products, potentially resulting in the loss of some of our competitive advantage and a decrease in our revenue, which could materially and adversely affect our business, prospects, financial condition and results of operations.
Third-party claims that we are infringing intellectual property, whether successful or not, could subject us to costly and time-consuming litigation or expensive licenses, and our business could be adversely affected.
Although we hold key patents related to our products, a number of companies, both within and outside of the self-driving vehicle industry, hold other patents covering aspects of self-driving technology. In addition to these patents, participants in this industry typically also protect their technology, especially embedded software, through copyrights and trade secrets. In recent years, there has been significant litigation globally involving patents and other intellectual property rights. We have received, and in the future may receive, inquiries from other intellectual property holders and may become subject to claims that we infringe their intellectual property rights, particularly as we expand our presence in the market, expand to new use cases and face increasing competition. We are also party to certain agreements that may limit our trademark rights in certain jurisdictions; while we believe these agreements are unlikely to have a significant impact on our business as currently conducted, our ability to use our existing trademarks in new business lines in the future may be limited. In addition, parties may claim that the names and branding of our products infringe their trademark rights in certain countries or territories. Although we intend to vigorously defend our intellectual property rights, if such a claim were to prevail, we may have to change the names and branding of our products in the affected territories and we could incur other costs.
We currently have a number of agreements in effect pursuant to which we have agreed to defend, indemnify and hold harmless our partners, suppliers, and channel partners and other partners from damages and costs which may arise from the infringement by our products of third-party patents or other intellectual property rights. The scope of these indemnity obligations varies, but may, in some instances, include indemnification for damages and expenses, including attorneys’ fees. We do not carry insurance to cover intellectual property infringement claims. A claim that our products infringe a third party’s intellectual property rights, even if untrue, could adversely affect our relationships with our partners, may deter future partners from purchasing our products and could expose us to costly litigation and settlement expenses. Even if we are not a party to any litigation between a partner and a third party relating to infringement by our products, an adverse outcome in any such litigation could make it more difficult for us to defend our products against intellectual property infringement claims in any subsequent litigation in which we are a named party. Any of these results could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Our defense of intellectual property rights claims brought against us or our partners, suppliers and channel partners, with or without merit, could be time-consuming, expensive to litigate or settle, divert management resources and attention and force us to acquire intellectual property rights and licenses, which may involve substantial royalty or other payments and may not be available on acceptable terms or at all. Further, a party making such a claim, if successful, could secure a judgment that requires us to pay substantial damages or obtain an injunction. An adverse determination also could invalidate our intellectual property rights and adversely affect our ability to offer our products to our partners and may require that we procure or develop substitute products that do not infringe, which could require significant effort and expense. Any of these events could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
 
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We may need to defend ourselves against intellectual property infringement claims, which may be time-consuming and could cause us to incur substantial costs.
Companies, organizations or individuals, including our current and future competitors, may hold or obtain patents, trademarks or other proprietary rights that would prevent, limit or interfere with our ability to make, use, develop or sell our products, which could make it more difficult for us to operate our business. From time to time, we may receive inquiries from holders of patents or trademarks inquiring whether we are infringing their proprietary rights and/or seek court declarations that they do not infringe upon our intellectual property rights. Companies holding patents or other intellectual property rights relating to self-driving technology (including sensors, hardware and software for self-driving vehicles) or other related technology may bring suits alleging infringement of such rights or otherwise asserting their rights and seeking licenses. In addition, if we are determined to have infringed upon a third party’s intellectual property rights, we may be required to do one or more of the following:
 
   
cease selling, incorporating or using products that incorporate the challenged intellectual property;
 
   
pay substantial damages;
 
   
obtain a license from the holder of the infringed intellectual property right, which license may not be available on reasonable terms or at all; or
 
   
redesign our technology.
A successful claim of infringement against us and our failure or inability to obtain a license to the infringed technology could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. In addition, any litigation or claims, whether or not valid, could result in substantial costs and diversion of resources and management’s attention.
We also hold licenses to intellectual property from third parties, including inbound licenses provided in connection with commercial and other arrangements, and we may face claims that our use of this intellectual property infringes the rights of others. In such cases, we may seek indemnification from our licensors under our license contracts with them. However, our rights to indemnification may be unavailable or insufficient to cover our costs and losses, depending on our use of the technology, whether we choose to retain control over conduct of the litigation, and other factors.
We rely on licenses from third parties for intellectual property that is critical to our business, and we would lose the rights to use such intellectual property if those agreements were terminated or not renewed.
We expect that the long-term contracts and commercial arrangements that we have and intend to enter into with partners may include licenses. We rely on these licenses from our partners for certain intellectual property that is or may become critical to our business. Termination of our current or future partner agreements could cause us to have to negotiate new or restated agreements with less favorable terms or cause us to lose our rights under the original agreements.
In the case of a loss of technology used in our systems, we may not be able to continue to manufacture certain components for our product or for our operations or may experience disruption to our manufacturing processes as we test and requalify any potential replacement technology. Even if we retain the licenses, the licenses may not be exclusive with respect to such component design or technologies, which could aid our competitors and have a negative impact on our business.
Our intellectual property applications for registration may not issue or be registered, which may have a material adverse effect on our ability to prevent others from commercially exploiting products similar to ours.
We cannot be certain that we are the first inventor of the subject matter to which we have filed a particular patent application, or if we are the first party to file such a patent application. If another party has filed a patent application to the same subject matter as we have, we may not be entitled to the protection sought by the patent
 
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application. We also cannot be certain whether the claims included in a patent application will ultimately be allowed in the applicable issued patent. Further, the scope of protection of issued patent claims is often difficult to determine. As a result, we cannot be certain that the patent applications that we file will issue, or that our issued patents will afford protection against competitors with similar technology. In addition, our competitors may design around our issued patents, which could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
As our patents may expire and may not be extended, our patent applications may not be granted and our patent rights may be contested, circumvented, invalidated or limited in scope. In particular, we may not be able to prevent others from developing or exploiting competing technologies, which could materially and adversely affect our business, prospects, financial condition and results of operations.
We cannot assure you that we will be granted patents pursuant to our pending applications. Even if our patent applications succeed and we are issued patents in accordance with them, these patents may still be contested, circumvented or invalidated in the future. In addition, the rights granted under any issued patents may not provide us with meaningful protection or competitive advantages. The claims under any patents that issue from our patent applications may not be broad enough to prevent others from developing technologies that are similar or that achieve results similar to ours. The intellectual property rights of others could also bar us from licensing and exploiting any patents that issue from our pending applications. Numerous patents and pending patent applications owned by others exist in the fields in which we have developed and are developing our technology. These patents and patent applications might have priority over our patent applications and could subject our patent applications to invalidation. Finally, in addition to those who may claim priority, any of our existing or pending patents may also be challenged by others on the basis that they are otherwise invalid or unenforceable.
In addition to patented technology, we rely on our unpatented proprietary technology, trade secrets, processes and
know-how.
We rely on proprietary information (such as trade
secrets, know-how and
confidential information) to protect intellectual property that may not be patentable or subject to copyright, trademark, trade dress or service mark protection, or that we believe is best protected by means that do not require public disclosure. We generally seek to protect this proprietary information by entering into confidentiality agreements, or consulting services or employment agreements that
contain non-disclosure and
non-use provisions
with our employees, consultants, contractors and third parties. However, we may fail to enter into the necessary agreements, and even if entered into, these agreements may be breached or may otherwise fail to prevent disclosure, third-party infringement or misappropriation of our proprietary information, may be limited as to their term and may not provide an adequate remedy in the event of unauthorized disclosure or use of proprietary information. Trade secrets or confidential information may also be willfully or unintentionally disclosed, including by employees, who may leave our company and join our competitors. We have limited control over the protection of trade secrets used by our current or future manufacturing partners and suppliers and could lose future trade secret protection if any unauthorized disclosure of such information occurs. In addition, our proprietary information may otherwise become known or be independently developed by our competitors or other third parties. To the extent that our employees, consultants, contractors, advisors and other third parties use intellectual property owned by others in their work for us, disputes may arise as to the rights in related or
resulting know-how and
inventions. Costly and time-consuming litigation could be necessary to enforce and determine the scope of our proprietary rights, and failure to obtain or maintain protection for our proprietary information could adversely affect our competitive business position. Furthermore, laws regarding trade secret rights in certain markets where we operate may afford little or no protection to our trade secrets.
We also rely on physical and electronic security measures to protect our proprietary information, but we cannot provide assurance that these security measures will not be breached or provide adequate protection for our property or any proprietary information that we hold. There is a risk that third parties may obtain and improperly
 
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utilize our proprietary information to our competitive disadvantage. We may not be able to detect or prevent the unauthorized use of such information or take appropriate and timely steps to enforce our intellectual property rights.
We may be subject to damages resulting from claims that we or our employees have wrongfully used or disclosed alleged trade secrets of our employees’ former employers.
We may be subject to claims that we or our employees have inadvertently or otherwise used or disclosed trade secrets or other proprietary information of an employee’s former employers. Litigation may be necessary to defend against these claims. If we fail in defending such claims, in addition to paying monetary damages, we may lose valuable intellectual property rights or personnel. A loss of key personnel or their work product could hamper or prevent our ability to commercialize our products, which could severely harm our business. Even if we are successful in defending against these claims, litigation could result in substantial costs and demands on management resources.
Our software contains third-party open-source software components, and failure to comply with the terms of the underlying open-source software licenses could restrict our ability to sell our products or give rise to disclosure obligations of proprietary software.
Our software contains components that are licensed
under so-called “open
source,” “free” or other similar licenses. Open source software is made available to the general public on
an “as-is” basis
under the terms of
a non-negotiable license.
Certain open source licenses may give rise to obligations to disclose or license our source code or other intellectual property rights if such open source software is integrated with our proprietary software or distributed in certain ways. We currently combine our proprietary software with open source software, but not in a manner that we believe requires the release of the source code of our proprietary software to the public. If we combine or distribute our proprietary software with open source software in a certain manner in the future, we could be required to release the source code to our proprietary software as open source software, or could be required to cease using the relevant open source software which might be costly to replace. Open source licensors also generally do not provide warranties or other contractual protections regarding infringement claims or the quality of the code. In addition, if the license terms for the open source software that we use change, we may be forced
to re-engineer our
software, incur additional costs or discontinue the use of certain offerings
if re-engineering could
not be accomplished in a timely manner. Although we monitor our use of open source software to avoid subjecting our offerings to unintended conditions, there is a risk that these licenses could be construed in a way that could impose unanticipated conditions or restrictions on our ability to commercialize our offerings. We cannot guarantee that we have incorporated open source software in our software in a manner that will not subject us to liability or in a manner that is consistent with our current policies and procedures.
Risks Related to Ownership of Class A Common Stock and Warrants
We will incur significant increased expenses and administrative burdens as a public company, which could materially and adversely affect our business, prospects, financial condition and results of operations.
We face increased legal, accounting, administrative and other costs and expenses as a public company that we did not incur as a private company. The Exchange Act, Sarbanes-Oxley Act, including the requirements of Section 404, as well as rules and regulations subsequently implemented by the SEC, the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act of 2010 and the rules and regulations promulgated and to be promulgated thereunder, the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board and the securities exchanges, impose additional reporting and other obligations on public companies. Compliance with public company requirements will increase costs and make certain activities more time-consuming. A number of those requirements require us to carry out activities we have not done previously. For example, we created new board committees and have adopted new internal controls and disclosure controls and procedures. In addition, expenses associated with SEC reporting requirements will be incurred. Furthermore, if any issues in complying with those requirements are
 
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identified (for example, if the auditors identify a material weakness or significant deficiency in the internal control over financial reporting), we could incur additional costs rectifying those issues, and the existence of those issues could adversely affect our reputation or investor perceptions of it. In addition, we have obtained director and officer liability insurance. Risks associated with our status as a public company may make it more difficult to attract and retain qualified persons to serve on our Board or as executive officers. The additional reporting and other obligations imposed by these rules and regulations increase legal and financial compliance costs and the costs of related legal, accounting and administrative activities. These increased costs will require us to divert a significant amount of money that could otherwise be used to expand the business and achieve strategic objectives. Advocacy efforts by stockholders and third parties may also prompt additional changes in governance and reporting requirements, which could further increase costs.
Our management has limited experience in operating a public company.
Our executive officers have limited experience in the management of a publicly traded company. Our management team may not successfully or effectively manage our transition to a public company that will be subject to significant regulatory oversight and reporting obligations under federal securities laws. Their limited experience in dealing with the increasingly complex laws pertaining to public companies could be a significant disadvantage in that it is likely that an increasing amount of their time may be devoted to these activities which will result in less time being devoted to the management and growth of the Company. We may not have adequate personnel with the appropriate level of knowledge, experience, and training in the accounting policies, practices or internal controls over financial reporting required of public companies in the United States. The development and implementation of the standards and controls necessary for the Company to achieve the level of accounting standards required of a public company in the United States may require costs greater than expected. It is possible that we will be required to expand our employee base and hire additional employees to support our operations as a public company which will increase our operating costs in future periods.
The terms of the warrants may be amended in a manner adverse to a holder if holders of at least 50% of the then outstanding public warrants approve of such amendment.
The warrants were issued in registered form under the Warrant Agreement, between us and Continental Stock Transfer & Trust Company, as warrant agent. The Warrant Agreement provides that the terms of the warrants may be amended without the consent of any holder to cure any ambiguity or correct any defective provision, but requires the approval by the holders of at least 50% of the then outstanding public warrants to make any change that adversely affects the interests of the registered holders of public warrants. Accordingly, we may amend the terms of the public warrants in a manner adverse to a holder if holders of at least 50% of the then outstanding public warrants approve of such amendment. Although our ability to amend the terms of the public warrants with the consent of at least 50% of the then outstanding public warrants is unlimited, examples of such amendments could be amendments to, among other things, increase the exercise price of the warrants, shorten the exercise period or decrease the number of shares of our common stock purchasable upon exercise of a warrant.
Failure to timely and effectively build our accounting systems to effectively implement controls and procedures required by Section 404(a) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act could have a material adverse effect on our business.
As a public company, we are required to provide management’s attestation on internal controls. The standards required for a public company under Section 404(a) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act are significantly more stringent than those required of a private company. Management may not be able to effectively and timely implement controls and procedures that adequately respond to the increased regulatory compliance and reporting requirements. If we are not able to implement the additional requirements of Section 404(a) in a timely manner or with adequate compliance, we may not be able to assess whether our internal controls over financial reporting are effective, which may subject us to adverse regulatory consequences and could harm investor confidence and the market price of our securities.
 
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To manage the expected growth of our operations and increasing complexity, we will need to improve our operational and financial systems, procedures, and controls and continue to increase systems automation to reduce reliance on manual operations. Any inability to do so will affect our reporting. Our current and planned systems, procedures and controls may not be adequate to support our complex arrangements and the rules governing revenue and expense recognition for our future operations and expected growth. Delays or problems associated with any improvement or expansion of our operational and financial systems and controls could adversely affect our relationships with our partners, cause harm to our reputation and brand and could also result in errors in our financial and other reporting.
We are an emerging growth company within the meaning of the Securities Act, and if we take advantage of certain exemptions from disclosure requirements available to emerging growth companies, this could make our securities less attractive to investors and may make it more difficult to compare our performance with other public companies.
We are an “emerging growth company” within the meaning of the Securities Act, as modified by the JOBS Act, and may take advantage of certain exemptions from various reporting requirements that are applicable to other public companies that are not emerging growth companies for as long as we continue to be an emerging growth company, including, but not limited to, not being required to comply with the auditor attestation requirements of Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, reduced disclosure obligations regarding executive compensation in our periodic reports and proxy statements, and exemptions from the requirements of holding a nonbinding advisory vote on executive compensation and shareholder approval of any golden parachute payments not previously approved. As a result, our shareholders may not have access to certain information they may deem important. We will remain an emerging growth company until the earliest of (i) the day we are deemed to be a large accelerated filer, which, in addition to certain other criteria, means the market value of our common equity that is held
by non-affiliates exceeds
$700 million as of the end of the prior fiscal year’s second fiscal quarter, (ii) the last day of the fiscal year in which we have total annual gross revenue of $1.07 billion or more during such fiscal year, (iii) the date on which we have issued more than $1 billion
in non-convertible debt
in the prior three-year period and (iv) December 31, 2026. Investors may find our securities less attractive because we will rely on these exemptions. If some investors find our securities less attractive as a result of our reliance on these exemptions, the trading prices of our securities may be lower than they otherwise would be, there may be a less active trading market for our securities and the trading prices of our securities may be more volatile.
In addition, Section 107 of the JOBS Act also provides that an emerging growth company can take advantage of the exemption from complying with new or revised accounting standards provided in Section 7(a)(2)(B) of the Securities Act as long as we are an emerging growth company. An emerging growth company can therefore delay the adoption of certain accounting standards until those standards would otherwise apply to private companies. We have elected not to opt out of such an extended transition period and, therefore, we may not be subject to the same new or revised accounting standards as other public companies that are not emerging growth companies. This may make comparison of our financial statements with another public company which is neither an emerging growth company nor an emerging growth company which has opted out of using the extended transition period difficult or impossible because of the potential differences in accounting standards used.
Our Bylaw designate a state or federal court located within the State of Delaware and the federal district courts of the United States as the exclusive forum for substantially all disputes between us and our stockholders, which could limit our stockholders’ ability to choose the judicial forum for disputes with us or our directors, officers or employees.
Our Bylaws provide that unless we consent in writing to the selection of an alternative forum, to the fullest extent permitted by law, the sole and exclusive forum for (i) any derivative action or proceeding brought on our behalf, (ii) any action asserting a claim of breach of a fiduciary duty owed by any of our directors, officers or other employees to us or our stockholders, (iii) any action arising pursuant to any provision of the Delaware
 
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General Corporation Law, our amended and restated certificate of incorporation or our amended and restated bylaws, or (iv) any other action asserting a claim that is governed by the internal affairs doctrine shall be the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware (or, if the Court of Chancery does not have jurisdiction, the federal district court for the District of Delaware), in all cases subject to the court having jurisdiction over indispensable parties named as defendants. Our amended and restated bylaws further provide that the federal district courts of the United States will be the exclusive forum for resolving any complaints asserting a cause of action arising under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act.
Any person or entity purchasing or otherwise acquiring any interest in any of our securities shall be deemed to have notice of and consented to this provision. This exclusive forum provision may limit a stockholder’s ability to bring a claim in a judicial forum of its choosing for disputes with us or our directors, officers or other employees, which may discourage lawsuits against us and our directors, officers and other employees. This exclusive forum provision will not apply to any causes of action arising under the Securities Act or the Exchange Act or any other claim for which the federal courts have exclusive jurisdiction. Further, the enforceability of similar choice of forum provisions in other companies’ charter documents has been challenged in legal proceedings, and it is possible that a court could find these types of provisions to be inapplicable or unenforceable. For example, the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware recently determined that a provision stating that U.S. federal district courts are the exclusive forum for resolving any complaint asserting a cause of action arising under the Securities Act is not enforceable. However, this decision may be reviewed and ultimately overturned by the Delaware Supreme Court. If a court were to find either exclusive forum provision in our amended and restated bylaws to be inapplicable or unenforceable in an action, we may incur additional costs associated with resolving the dispute in other jurisdictions, which could harm our results of operations.
Certificate of Incorporation documents and Delaware law could prevent a takeover that stockholders consider favorable and could also reduce the market price of our stock.
Our Certificate of Incorporation and Bylaws contain provisions that could delay or prevent a change in control of the Company. These provisions could also make it more difficult for stockholders to elect directors and take other corporate actions. These provisions include:
 
   
authorizing our Board of Directors to issue preferred stock with voting or other rights or preferences that could discourage a takeover attempt or delay changes in control;
 
   
certain of our shareholders, including our Founders, hold sufficient voting power to control voting for election of directors and amend our Certificate of Incorporation;
 
   
prohibiting cumulative voting in the election of directors;
 
   
providing that vacancies on our Board of Directors may be filled only by a majority of directors then in office, even though less than a quorum;
 
   
limiting the liability of, and the indemnification of, our directors and officers;
 
   
prohibiting the adoption, amendment or repeal of our Bylaws or the repeal of the provisions of our Certificate of Incorporation regarding the election and removal of directors without the required approval of at
least two-thirds of
the shares entitled to vote at an election of directors;
 
   
enabling our Board of Directors to amend the bylaws, which may allow our Board of Directors to take additional actions to prevent an unsolicited takeover and inhibit the ability of an acquirer to amend the bylaws to facilitate an unsolicited takeover attempt; and
 
   
prohibiting stockholder action by written consent;
 
   
limiting the persons who may call special meetings of stockholders; and
 
   
requiring advance notification of stockholder nominations and proposals, which could preclude Stockholders from bringing matters before annual or special meetings of stockholders and delay
 
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changes in our Board of Directors and also may discourage or deter a potential acquirer from conducting a solicitation of proxies to elect their own slate of directors or otherwise attempting to obtain control of us.
These provisions may frustrate or prevent any attempts by our stockholders to replace or remove our current management by making it more difficult for stockholders to replace members of our Board of Directors, which is responsible for appointing the members of our management. In addition, the provisions of Section 203 of the DGCL govern Aurora. These provisions may prohibit large stockholders, in particular those owning 15% or more of our outstanding voting stock, from merging or combining with Aurora for a certain period of time without the consent of its Board of Directors.
These and other provisions in our Certificate of Incorporation and Bylaws and under Delaware law could discourage potential takeover attempts, reduce the price investors might be willing to pay in the future for shares of our common stock and result in the market price of our common stock being lower than it would be without these provisions.
Claims for indemnification by our directors and officers may reduce our available funds to satisfy successful third-party claims against us and may reduce the amount of money available to us.
Our Certificate of Incorporation and Bylaws provide that we will indemnify our directors and officers, in each case to the fullest extent permitted by Delaware law. In addition, as permitted by Section 145 of the DGCL, our Bylaws and our indemnification agreements that we entered into with our directors and officers provide that:
 
   
We will indemnify our directors and officers for serving in those capacities or for serving other business enterprises at our request, to the fullest extent permitted by Delaware law. Delaware law provides that a corporation may indemnify such person if such person acted in good faith and in a manner such person reasonably believed to be in or not opposed to the best interests of the registrant and, with respect to any criminal proceeding, had no reasonable cause to believe such person’s conduct was unlawful;
 
   
We may, in our discretion, indemnify employees and agents in those circumstances where indemnification is permitted by applicable law;
 
   
We are required to advance expenses, as incurred, to our directors and officers in connection with defending a proceeding, except that such directors or officers shall undertake to repay such advances if it is ultimately determined that such person is not entitled to indemnification;
 
   
We are not obligated pursuant to our Bylaws to indemnify a person with respect to proceedings initiated by that person against Aurora or our other indemnitees, except with respect to proceedings authorized by our Board of Directors or brought to enforce a right to indemnification;
 
   
the rights conferred in our Bylaws are not exclusive, and we are authorized to enter into indemnification agreements with our directors, officers, employees and agents and to obtain insurance to indemnify such persons; and
 
   
We may not retroactively amend our amended and restated bylaw provisions to reduce our indemnification obligations to directors, officers, employees and agents.
We do not intend to pay dividends for the foreseeable future.
We have never declared or paid any cash dividends on our capital stock and do not intend to pay any cash dividends in the foreseeable future. We expect to retain future earnings, if any, to fund the development and growth of our business. Any future determination to pay dividends on our capital stock will be at the discretion of our Board. Accordingly, investors must rely on sales of our common stock after price appreciation, which may never occur, as the only way to realize any future gains on their investments.
 
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We may be subject to securities litigation, which is expensive and could divert management attention.
The market price of our common stock may be volatile and, in the past, companies that have experienced volatility in the market price of their stock have been subject to securities class action litigation. We may be the target of this type of litigation in the future. Securities litigation against us could result in substantial costs and divert management’s attention from other business concerns, which could seriously harm its business.
Future resales of common stock may cause the market price of our securities to drop significantly, even if our business is doing well.
The Sponsor and the Legacy Aurora Stockholders are contractually restricted from selling or transferring any of its shares of common stock (not including the shares of our common stock issued in the PIPE Investment pursuant to the terms of the Subscription Agreements or purchased in the public market) (the
“Lock-up
Shares”) for certain periods of time. Under the Registration Rights Agreement, such
lock-up
restrictions applicable to the
Lock-up
Parties’ (as defined in the Registration Rights Agreement)
Lock-up
Shares (as defined in the Registration Rights Agreement) begin at the Closing and end in tranches of 25% of
the Lock-Up
Parties’
Lock-up
Shares at each of (i) the one year anniversary of Closing, (ii) the
two-year
anniversary of the Closing, (iii) the three-year anniversary of the Closing and (iv) the four-year anniversary of the Closing. Notwithstanding the foregoing, (i) each of Mr. Urmson, Mr. Anderson and Mr. Bagnell may sell Registrable Securities (as defined in the Registration Rights Agreement) following the initial six months after the Closing up to an amount of $25 million each and (ii) if, after Closing, Aurora completes a transaction that results in a change of control, the
Lock-Up
Parties’
Lock-up
Shares are released from restriction immediately prior to such change of control. Under the Sponsor Agreement, the Sponsor’s
lock-up
Shares are subject to the same releases as the
Lock-Up
Parties’
Lock-up
Shares, except the Sponsor’s
Lock-up
Shares do not contain the right to sell Registrable Shares held by Mr. Urmson, Mr. Anderson and Mr. Bagnell, as described in the previous sentence.
Under the Bylaws, all shares held by Legacy Aurora Stockholders immediately prior to the closing are subject to a
lock-up
that began at the Closing and will end on the date that is 180 days following the Closing. However, following the expiration of each lockup, the applicable stockholders will not be restricted from selling shares of Aurora’s common stock held by them, other than by applicable securities laws. Additionally, the Third Party PIPE Investors are not restricted from selling any of their shares of Aurora common stock, other than by applicable securities laws. As such, sales of a substantial number of shares of our common stock in the public market could occur at any time. These sales, or the perception in the market that the holders of a large number of shares intend to sell shares, could reduce the market price of our stock.
As restrictions on resale end and registration statements are available for use, the sale or possibility of sale of these shares could have the effect of increasing the volatility in our share price or the market price of our stock could decline if the holders of currently restricted shares sell them or are perceived by the market as intending to sell them.
The market price and trading volume of our common stock may be volatile and could decline significantly.
The stock markets, including Nasdaq on which we list our shares of our stock, have from time to time experienced significant price and volume fluctuations. Even if an active, liquid and orderly trading market develops and is sustained for our stock, the market price of our stock may be volatile and could decline significantly. In addition, the trading volume in our stock may fluctuate and cause significant price variations to occur. If the market price of our stock declines significantly, you may be unable to resell your shares at an attractive price (or at all). We cannot assure you that the market price of our stock will not fluctuate widely or decline significantly in the future in response to a number of factors, including, among others, the following:
 
   
the realization of any of the risk factors presented in this prospectus;
 
   
changes in the industries in which we and our customers operate;
 
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developments involving our competitors;
 
   
changes in laws and regulations affecting its business;
 
   
actual or anticipated differences in our estimates, or in the estimates of analysts, for our revenues, Adjusted EBITDA, results of operations, level of indebtedness, liquidity or financial condition;
 
   
additions and departures of key personnel;
 
   
failure to comply with the requirements of Nasdaq;
 
   
failure to comply with the Sarbanes-Oxley Act or other laws or regulations;
 
   
future issuances, sales, resales or repurchases or anticipated issuances, sales, resales or repurchases, of our securities;
 
   
publication of research reports by securities analysts about us or our competitors or our industry;
 
   
the public’s reaction to our press releases, its other public announcements and its filings with the SEC;
 
   
actions by stockholders, including the sale by the Third Party PIPE Investors of any of their shares of our stock;
 
   
the performance and market valuations of other similar companies;
 
   
commencement of, or involvement in, litigation involving us;
 
   
broad disruptions in the financial markets, including sudden disruptions in the credit markets;
 
   
speculation in the press or investment community;
 
   
actual, potential or perceived control, accounting or reporting problems;
 
   
changes in accounting principles, policies and guidelines; and
 
   
other events or factors, including those resulting from infectious diseases, health epidemics and pandemics (including the ongoing
COVID-19
public health emergency), natural disasters, war, acts of terrorism or responses to these events.
 
   
actual or anticipated fluctuations in our quarterly financial results or the quarterly financial results of companies perceived to be similar to us;
 
   
changes in the market’s expectations about our results of operations;
 
   
our results of operations failing to meet the expectation of securities analysts or investors in a particular period;
 
   
any major change in our Board or management;
 
   
sales of substantial amounts of the shares of common stock by our directors, executive officers or significant stockholders or the perception that such sales could occur; and
 
   
general economic and political conditions such as recessions, interest rates, fuel prices, international currency fluctuations and acts of war or terrorism.
In the past, securities class-action litigation has often been instituted against companies following periods of volatility in the market price of their shares. This type of litigation could result in substantial costs and divert our management’s attention and resources, which could have a material adverse effect on us.
Broad market and industry factors may materially harm the market price of our securities irrespective of our operating performance. The stock market in general, and Nasdaq in particular, have experienced price and volume fluctuations that have often been unrelated or disproportionate to the operating performance of the particular companies affected. The trading prices and valuations of these stocks, and of our securities, may not be predictable. A loss of investor confidence in the market for retail stocks or the stocks of other companies which
 
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investors perceive to be similar to the Company could materially and adversely affect our business, prospects, financial condition and results of operations. A decline in the market price of our securities also could adversely affect our ability to issue additional securities and our ability to obtain additional financing in the future.
The dual class structure of our common stock has the effect of concentrating voting control with our Founders. This will limit or preclude your ability to influence corporate matters, including the outcome of important transactions, including a change in control.
Our Class B Common Stock has 10 votes per share, and Class A Common Stock, has one vote per share. The Aurora Founders together own no shares of the Class A Common Stock and 245,765,696 shares of the Class B Common Stock, representing 44.1% of the voting control of the Company. Therefore, the Aurora Founders, individually or together, are able to significantly influence matters submitted to our stockholders for approval, including the election of directors, amendments of our organizational documents and any merger, consolidation, sale of all or substantially all of our assets or other major corporate transactions. The Aurora Founders, individually or together, may have interests that differ from yours and may vote in a way with which you disagree and which may be adverse to your interests. This concentrated control may have the effect of delaying, preventing or deterring a change in control of our company, could deprive our stockholders of an opportunity to receive a premium for their capital stock as part of a sale of our company and might ultimately affect the market price of our stock.
Future transfers by the holders of Class B Common Stock will generally result in those shares converting into shares of Class A Common Stock, subject to limited exceptions, such as certain transfers effected for estate planning or charitable purposes. In addition, each share of Class B Common Stock will convert automatically into one share of Class A Common Stock upon (i) the date specified by affirmative written election of the holders
of two-thirds
of the then-outstanding shares of Class B Common Stock, (ii) the date set by our board of directors that is no less than 61 days and no more than 180 days following the date on which the shares of Class B Common Stock held by the Aurora Founders and their permitted entities and permitted transferees represent less than 20% of the Class B Common Stock held by the Aurora Founders and their permitted entities as of immediately following the closing of the Business Combination or (iii) nine months after the death or total disability of the last to die or become disabled of the Aurora Founders, or such later date not to exceed a total period of 18 months after such death or disability as may be approved by a majority of our independent directors. For information about our dual class structure, see the section titled “
Description of Capital Stock
.”
Our actual financial position and results of operations may differ materially from the unaudited pro forma condensed combined financial information included in this prospectus.
The unaudited pro forma condensed combined financial information included in this prospectus is presented for illustrative purposes only and is not necessarily indicative of what our actual financial position or results of operations are, nor is it indicative of our future financial position or results of operations. The unaudited pro forma adjustments represent our management’s estimates based on information available and are subject to change as additional information becomes available and analyses are performed. See “
Unaudited Pro Forma Condensed Combined Financial Information
” for more information.
We cannot predict the impact our dual class structure may have on our stock price.
We cannot predict whether our dual class structure will result in a lower or more volatile market price of our Class A Common Stock or in adverse publicity or other adverse consequences. For example, certain index providers have announced restrictions on including companies with multiple-class share structures in certain of their indexes. In July 2017, FTSE Russell and S&P Dow Jones announced that they would cease to allow most newly public companies utilizing dual or multi-class capital structures to be included in their indices. Affected indices include the Russell 2000 and the S&P 500, S&P MidCap 400 and S&P SmallCap 600, which together make up the S&P Composite 1500. Beginning in 2017, MSCI, a leading stock index provider, opened public
 
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consultations on their treatment
of no-vote
and multi-class structures and temporarily barred new multi-class listings from certain of its indices; however, in October 2018, MSCI announced its decision to include equity securities “with unequal voting structures” in its indices and to launch a new index that specifically includes voting rights in its eligibility criteria. Under the announced policies, our dual class capital structure would make us ineligible for inclusion in certain indices, and as a result, mutual funds, exchange-traded funds and other investment vehicles that attempt to passively track those indices will not be investing in our stock. These policies are still fairly new and it is as of yet unclear what effect, if any, they will have on the valuations of publicly traded companies excluded from the indices, but it is possible that they may depress these valuations compared to those of other similar companies that are included. Because of our dual class structure, we will likely be excluded from certain of these indexes and we cannot assure you that other stock indexes will not take similar actions. Given the sustained flow of investment funds into passive strategies that seek to track certain indexes, exclusion from stock indexes would likely preclude investment by many of these funds and could make our stock less attractive to other investors. As a result, the market price of our stock could be adversely affected.
The exercise of warrants for our stock would increase the number of shares eligible for future resale in the public market and result in dilution to our stockholders. Such dilution will increase if more of our shares are redeemed.
As of November 3, 2021, we had warrants to purchase an aggregate of 21,118,750 shares of our stock outstanding, comprising 12,218,750 public warrants and 8,900,000 Private Placement Warrants. These warrants will become exercisable at any time commencing on December 3, 2021. The likelihood that those warrants will be exercised increases if the trading price of shares of our stock exceeds the exercise price of the warrants. The exercise price of these warrants is $11.50 per share.
There is no guarantee that the warrants will ever be in the money after they become exercisable and prior to their expiration, and as such, the warrants may expire worthless.
To the extent the warrants are exercised, additional shares of our stock will be issued, which will result in dilution to the holders of our stock and increase the number of shares eligible for resale in the public market. Holders of warrants do not have a right to redeem the warrants. Sales of substantial numbers of shares issued upon the exercise of warrants in the public market or the potential that such warrants may be exercised could also adversely affect the market price of our stock.
We may redeem your unexpired warrants prior to their exercise at a time that is disadvantageous to you, thereby making your warrants worthless.
We will have the ability to redeem the outstanding public warrants at any time after they become exercisable and prior to their expiration, at a price of $0.01 per warrant, if, and only if, the last reported sales price of our common stock equals or exceeds $18.00 per share (as adjusted for adjustments to the number of shares issuable upon exercise or the exercise price of a warrant) for any 20 trading days within a 30
trading-day
period ending on the third trading day prior to the date we send the notice of redemption to the warrant holders (the “Reference Value”). If and when the warrants become redeemable by us, we may exercise our redemption right even if we are unable to register or qualify the underlying securities for sale under all applicable state securities laws. Redemption of the outstanding warrants as described above could force you to: (1) exercise your warrants and pay the exercise price therefor at a time when it may be disadvantageous for you to do so; (2) sell your warrants at the then-current market price when you might otherwise wish to hold your warrants; or (3) accept the nominal redemption price which, at the time the outstanding warrants are called for redemption, we expect would be substantially less than the market value of your warrants. None of the Private Placement Warrants will be redeemable by us in such a case so long as they are held by the Sponsor or its permitted transferees, but the Sponsor has agreed to exercise all of its Private Placement Warrants for cash or on a “cashless basis” on or prior to the redemption date, in the event that the Reference Value exceeds $18.00 per
 
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share (as adjusted for adjustments to the number of shares issuable upon exercise or the exercise price of a warrant) and we elect to redeem the public warrants pursuant to the Warrant Agreement and notify the Sponsor of such election and the redemption date on or prior to the date we mail a notice of redemption to the holders of the public warrants.
In addition, we will have the ability to redeem the outstanding warrants (including the Private Placement Warrants if the Reference Value is less than $18.00 per share) for shares of our stock at any time after they become exercisable and prior to their expiration, at a price of $0.10 per warrant if, among other things, the Reference Value equals or exceeds $10.00 per share (as adjusted for adjustments to the number of shares issuable upon exercise or the exercise price of a warrant). In such a case, the holders will be able to exercise their warrants prior to redemption for a number of shares of our common stock determined based on the redemption date and the fair market value of our common stock, as set forth in Section 6.2 of the Warrant Agreement attached as Exhibit 4.3 to the Registration Statement. The value received upon exercise of the warrants (1) may be less than the value the holders would have received if they had exercised their warrants at a later time where the underlying share price is higher and (2) may not compensate the holders for the value of the warrants, including because the number of shares of common stock received is capped at 0.361 shares of our stock per warrant (subject to adjustment) irrespective of the remaining life of the warrants.
In the event we elect to redeem the warrants that are subject to redemption, we will mail the notice of redemption by first class mail, postage prepaid, not less than thirty days prior to the redemption date to the registered holders of the warrants to be redeemed at their last addresses as they appear on the registration books. Any notice mailed in such manner will be conclusively presumed to have been duly given whether or not the registered holder received such notice and we are not required to provide any notice to the beneficial owners of such warrants. Additionally, while we are required to provide such notice of redemption, we are not separately required to, and do not currently intend to, notify any holders of when the warrants become eligible for redemption. If you do not exercise your warrants in connection with a redemption, including because you are unaware that such warrants are being redeemed, you would only receive the nominal redemption price for your warrants.
If securities or industry analysts do not publish or cease publishing research or reports about us, our business, or the market in which we operate, or if they change their recommendations regarding our securities adversely, the price and trading volume of our securities could decline.
The trading market for our securities will be influenced by the research and reports that industry or securities analysts may publish about us, our business, market or competitors. If any of the analysts who may cover us change their recommendation regarding our shares of common stock adversely, or provide more favorable relative recommendations about our competitors, the price of our common stock would likely decline. If any analyst who may cover us were to cease our coverage of us or fail to regularly publish reports on it, we could lose visibility in the financial markets, which in turn could cause our share price or trading volume to decline.
Future issuances of debt securities and equity securities may adversely affect us, including the market price of our stock and may be dilutive to existing stockholders.
In the future, we may incur debt or issue equity ranking senior to our Class A Common Stock. Those securities will generally have priority upon liquidation. Such securities also may be governed by an indenture or other instrument containing covenants restricting its operating flexibility. Additionally, any convertible or exchangeable securities that we issue in the future may have rights, preferences and privileges more favorable than those of our Class A Common Stock. Because our decision to issue debt or equity in the future will depend on market conditions and other factors beyond our control, we cannot predict or estimate the amount, timing, nature or success of our future capital raising efforts. As a result, future capital raising efforts may reduce the market price of our stock and be dilutive to existing stockholders.
 
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Our failure to meet the continued listing requirements of Nasdaq could result in a delisting of our securities.
If we fail to satisfy the continued listing requirements of Nasdaq such as the corporate governance requirements or the minimum closing bid price requirement, Nasdaq may take steps to delist our securities. Such a delisting would likely have a negative effect on the price of the securities and would impair your ability to sell or purchase the securities when you wish to do so. In the event of a delisting, we can provide no assurance that any action taken by us to restore compliance with listing requirements would allow our securities to become listed again, stabilize the market price or improve the liquidity of our securities, prevent our securities from dropping below the Nasdaq minimum bid price requirement or prevent
future non-compliance
with Nasdaq’s listing requirements. Additionally, if our securities are not listed on, or become delisted from, Nasdaq for any reason, and are quoted on the OTC Bulletin Board, an inter-dealer automated quotation system for equity securities that is not a national securities exchange, the liquidity and price of our securities may be more limited than if we were quoted or listed on Nasdaq or another national securities exchange. You may be unable to sell your securities unless a market can be established or sustained.
 
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USE OF PROCEEDS
All of the Securities offered by the Selling Securityholders pursuant to this prospectus will be sold by the Selling Securityholders for their respective accounts. We will not receive any of the proceeds from the sale of the Securities hereunder.
With respect to the registration of all shares of Class A Common Stock and Private Placement Warrants offered by the Selling Securityholders pursuant to this prospectus, the Selling Securityholders will pay any underwriting discounts and commissions and expenses incurred by them for brokerage, accounting, tax or legal services or any other expenses incurred by them in disposing of the Securities. We will bear the costs, fees and expenses incurred in effecting the registration of the securities covered by this prospectus, including all registration and filing fees and fees and expenses of our counsel and our independent registered public accounting firm.
We will receive up to an aggregate of approximately $244.1 million from the exercise of the Warrants assuming the exercise in full of all of the Warrants for cash and from the exercise of Former Employee Options. We expect to use the net proceeds from the exercise of the Warrants and Former Employee Options for general corporate purposes. There is no assurance that the holders of the Warrants will elect to exercise any or all of such Warrants or that they will exercise any or all of them for cash. The amount of cash we would receive from the exercise of Warrants will decrease to the extent that Warrants are exercised on a cashless basis.
 
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MARKET PRICE OF THE REGISTRANT’S COMMON EQUITY AND
RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS
Market Information and Holders
The Class A Common Stock and Warrants trade on Nasdaq under the trading symbols “AUR” and “AUROW,” respectively.
As of November 3, 2021, the Company had approximately 642,869,548 shares of Class A Common Stock issued and outstanding held of record by 178 holders and approximately 21,118,750 Warrants issued and outstanding, each exercisable for one share of Class A Common Stock at a price of $11.50 per share, held of record by 2 holders.
Dividend Policy
We have not paid any cash dividends on the Class A Common Stock to date. We may retain future earnings, if any, for future operations, expansion and debt repayment and has no current plans to pay cash dividends for the foreseeable future. Any decision to declare and pay dividends in the future will be made at the discretion of the Board and will depend on, among other things, our results of operations, financial condition, cash requirements, contractual restrictions and other factors that the Board may deem relevant. In addition, our ability to pay dividends may be limited by covenants of any future outstanding indebtedness the Company or its subsidiaries incur. We do not anticipate declaring any cash dividends to holders of the Class A Common Stock in the foreseeable future.
 
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UNAUDITED PRO FORMA CONDENSED COMBINED FINANCIAL INFORMATION
Unless otherwise indicated or the context otherwise requires, references to: (a) ”Aurora Innovation, Inc.” or “Aurora” refers to RTPY and its consolidated subsidiaries after giving effect to the Business Combination, (b) ”Legacy Aurora” refers to Aurora Innovation, Inc., a Delaware corporation, prior to the Closing and (c) ”RTPY” refers to Reinvent Technology Partners Y, a Cayman corporation, prior to the Closing. Capitalized terms used but not defined in this section shall have the meanings ascribed to them in this prospectus.
We are providing the following unaudited pro forma condensed combined financial information to aid in the analysis of the financial aspects of the Merger. The Merger and the related transactions, as further described elsewhere in the unaudited pro forma financial information, were completed on November 3, 2021.
The following unaudited pro forma condensed combined financial information presents the combination of the financial information of RTPY and Legacy Aurora, adjusted to give effect to the Merger and other events contemplated by the Business Combination Agreement. The following unaudited pro forma condensed combined financial information has been prepared in accordance with Article 11 of
Regulation S-X
as amended by the final rule, Release
33-10786
“Amendments to Financial Disclosures about Acquired and Disposed Businesses.”
The unaudited pro forma condensed combined balance sheet of RTPY as of June 30, 2021 combines the historical balance sheet of RTPY as of June 30, 2021 and the historical consolidated balance sheet of Aurora as of June 30, 2021, adjusted to give pro forma effect to the Business Combination between RTPY and Aurora, summarized below, the PIPE Investment and certain other related events related to the Business Combination, in each case, as if the Business Combination, PIPE Investment and the other related events had been consummated on June 30, 2021.
The unaudited pro forma combined statements of operations for the year ended December 31, 2020 and for the six months ended June 30, 2021 combine the historical statements of operations of RTPY and the historical consolidated statements of operations of Aurora for such periods on a pro forma basis as if the Business Combination and related transactions had been consummated on January 1, 2020, the beginning of the earliest period presented.
Additionally, and as further described in Note 2 to the unaudited pro forma condensed combined financial information herein, Aurora completed the acquisition of Apparate on January 19, 2021. The acquisition of Apparate was deemed to be a material transaction that is separate from the Business Combination. The unaudited pro forma combined statements of operations for the year ended December 31, 2020 and for the six months ended June 30, 2021 combine the historical statements of operations of Aurora and Apparate as if the acquisition of Apparate had occurred on January 1, 2020, the beginning of the earliest period presented. The acquisition of Apparate is reflected in the balance sheet of Aurora as of June 30, 2021.
The unaudited pro forma condensed combined financial information was derived from and should be read in conjunction with the following historical financial statements and the accompanying notes, which are included elsewhere in this prospectus:
 
   
the (a) historical audited financial statements of RTPY as of December 31, 2020 and for the period from October 2, 2020 (inception) through December 31, 2020 and (b) historical unaudited condensed financial statements of RTPY as of and for the six months ended June 30, 2021;
 
   
the (a) historical audited financial statements of Aurora as of and for the year ended December 31, 2020 and (b) historical unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements of Aurora as of and for the six months ended June 30, 2021;
 
   
the historical audited consolidated financial statements of Apparate, as of and for the year-ended December 31, 2020, included elsewhere in this prospectus; and
 
   
other information relating to RTPY and Aurora included in this prospectus.
 
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The unaudited pro forma condensed combined financial information should be read together with the section titled “
Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
” and other financial information included elsewhere in this prospectus.
The unaudited pro forma combined financial statements do not necessarily reflect what the Company’s financial condition or results of operations would have been had the Business Combination occurred on the dates indicated. The unaudited pro forma combined financial information also may not be useful in predicting the future financial condition and results of operations of the Company. The actual financial position and results of operations may differ significantly from the pro forma amounts reflected herein due to a variety of factors.
Description of the Business Combination and the related transactions
The Domestication, Merger, PIPE Investment and accompanying transactions may be summarized as follows:
 
   
RTPY changed its jurisdiction of incorporation from the Cayman Islands to the State of Delaware;
 
   
RTPY entered into the Merger Agreement with Merger Sub and Legacy Aurora, pursuant to which, among other things, following the Domestication, (i) Merger Sub merged with and into Legacy Aurora, the separate corporate existence of Merger Sub ceased and Legacy Aurora became the surviving corporation and a wholly owned subsidiary of RTPY, and RTPY was renamed Aurora Innovation, Inc.;
 
   
Prior to the effective time of the Merger, Legacy Aurora adopted the A&R Certificate of Incorporation to implement a dual class structure, pursuant to which (i) Legacy Aurora authorized and issued the Aurora Class B Stock and (ii) each existing share of Legacy Aurora Series A Preferred Stock or Legacy Aurora Series B Preferred Stock issued and outstanding as of immediately prior to the Conversion Amendment (as defined below) was provided the right to convert each such share, from and following the Conversion Amendment, into one share of Legacy Aurora Class B Stock ((i) and (ii) together, the “Conversion Amendment”). For the avoidance of doubt, all rights, preferences, privileges and powers of, and restrictions provided for the benefit of the Legacy Aurora Series Seed 1 Preferred Stock, Legacy Aurora Series Seed 2 Preferred Stock, Legacy Aurora
Series U-1 Preferred
Stock, Legacy Aurora
Series U-2 Preferred
Stock or Legacy Aurora
Series B-1 Preferred
Stock remained unchanged by the Conversion Amendment;
 
   
Prior to the effective time of the Merger, but immediately subsequent to the Conversion Amendment, and pursuant to the terms of the A&R Certificate of Incorporation, each share of Legacy Aurora Series Seed 1 Preferred Stock, Legacy Aurora Series Seed 2 Preferred Stock, Legacy Aurora
Series U-1
Preferred Stock, Legacy Aurora
Series U-2
Preferred Stock or Legacy Aurora
Series B-1
Preferred Stock automatically converted into one share of Legacy Aurora common stock (the “Preferred Stock Conversion”);
 
   
Prior to the effective time of the Merger, but immediately subsequent to the Conversion Amendment, and pursuant to certain contractual exchange agreements with Legacy Aurora, each share of Legacy Aurora common stock held by the Aurora Founders was exchanged for one share of Legacy Aurora Class B Stock (the “Exchange” and, together with the Conversion Amendment and the Preferred Stock Conversion, the
“Pre-Closing
Restructuring”);
 
   
Upon the consummation of the Merger, Legacy Aurora Stockholders received an aggregate of 1,100,000,000 shares of Legacy Aurora common stock (at a deemed value of $10.00 per share), which, in the case of Legacy Aurora Awards, were shares underlying awards based on Legacy Class A Common Stock, representing
a pre-transaction equity
value of Aurora of $11.0 billion (such total number of shares of Legacy Aurora common stock, the “Aggregate Merger Consideration”). Specifically, after giving effect to
the Pre-Closing Restructuring,
(a) each share of Legacy Aurora common stock was cancelled and converted into the right to receive a number of shares of Class A Common Stock equal to the quotient obtained by dividing (i) the Aggregate Merger Consideration by
 
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(ii) the aggregate fully diluted number of shares of Legacy Aurora capital stock (the “Exchange Ratio”) and (b) each share of Legacy Aurora Class B Stock will be cancelled and converted into the right to receive a number of shares of Class B Common Stock equal to the Exchange Ratio of approximately 2.1708. The portion of the Aggregate Merger Consideration reflecting the conversion of the Legacy Aurora Awards was calculated assuming that all Legacy Aurora Options
are net-settled. Holders
of Legacy Aurora common stock received Class A Common Stock and holders of Legacy Aurora Class B Stock received Class B Common Stock. Accordingly, 513,575,373 shares of Class A Common Stock and 481,107,977 shares of Class B Common Stock were issued as outstanding shares to Legacy Aurora Stockholders upon completion of the Business Combination;
 
   
82,432,681 shares have been reserved for the potential future issuance of Class A Common Stock upon the exercise of Aurora Options and 34,698,749 shares have been reserved for the potential future issuance of Class A Common Stock upon the settlement of Aurora RSU Awards based on the following transactions contemplated by the Merger Agreement:
 
   
The conversion of all outstanding Legacy Aurora Options into options exercisable for shares of Class A Common Stock with the same terms except for the number of shares exercisable and the exercise price, each of which will be adjusted using the Exchange Ratio;
 
   
The conversion of all outstanding Legacy Aurora RSU Awards into awards of restricted stock units based on shares of Class A Common Stock with the same terms, except the number of restricted stock units comprising the award will be adjusted using the Exchange Ratio;
 
   
Aurora issued and sold 100,000,000 shares of Class A Common Stock at $10.00 per share to the PIPE Investors pursuant to the PIPE Investment;
 
   
75,458,911 of Class A ordinary shares were redeemed by RTPY public shareholders in connection with the Business Combination for an aggregate redemption price of approximately $754.6 million;
 
   
17,434,414 Sponsor Shares were forfeited as a result of the above redemptions;
 
   
1,720,772 shares of Aurora Class A common stock was issued as a result of conversion of Class B ordinary shares of RTPY owned by the Sponsor in the Domestication and become subject to
a lock-up (but
not price-based vesting) until the first anniversary following the completion of the Business Combination. Such shares represent 25% of the Remaining Sponsor Shares;
 
   
Additionally, 5,162,314 shares of Aurora Class A common stock issued as a result of the conversion of Class B ordinary shares of RTPY owned by the Sponsor in the Domestication have been immediately subject to both price-based vesting provisions
and lock-up provisions.
Such shares represent 75% of the Remaining Sponsor Shares; and
 
   
The Sponsor Shares subject to both price-based vesting provisions and
a lock-up will
consist of three tranches, equaling 1,720,772, 1,720,771 and 1,720,771 shares of Aurora Class A common stock for the first tranche, the second tranche and the third tranche, respectively, as follows:
 
   
Tranche I
: Tranche I has (i) a price-based vesting trigger based on the trading price of Aurora common stock exceeding $15.00 on
a 20-trading day
volume-weighted average price measurement basis and (ii) a lock up of two years following the completion of the Business Combination.
 
   
Tranche II
: Tranche II has (i) a price-based vesting trigger based on the trading price of Aurora common stock exceeding $17.50 on
a 20-trading day
volume-weighted average price measurement basis and (ii) a lock up of three years following the completion of the Business Combination.
 
   
Tranche III
: Tranche III has (i) a price-based vesting trigger based on the trading price of Aurora common stock exceeding $20.00 on
a 20-trading day
volume-weighted average price measurement basis and (ii) a lock up of four years following the completion of the Business Combination.
 
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If the price-based vesting conditions have not been met prior to or on the 10
th
 anniversary from the completion of the Business Combination, any unvested Sponsor Shares are forfeited. Additionally, upon a change in control event, all of the Sponsor Shares become vested and are released from
the lock-up.
Accounting for the Business Combination
The Business Combination is accounted for as a reverse recapitalization in accordance with GAAP. Under this method of accounting, RTPY will be treated as the acquired company for financial reporting purposes. Accordingly, for accounting purposes, the Business Combination will be treated as the equivalent of Aurora issuing shares for the net assets of RTPY, accompanied by a recapitalization.
Aurora has been determined to be the accounting acquirer based on evaluation of the following facts and circumstances:
 
   
Legacy Aurora Stockholders have the largest voting interest in the post-combination company;
 
   
Legacy Aurora will have the ability to appoint the majority of the members of the Aurora Board;
 
   
Legacy Aurora will comprise the ongoing operations of Aurora;
 
   
Legacy Aurora management hold executive management roles (including Chief Executive Officer, among others) in the post-combination company and are responsible for
the day-to-day operations;
and
 
   
The post-combination company assumed the Aurora branded name: Aurora Innovation, Inc.
Accordingly, the net assets of RTPY will be recognized at historical cost (which is expected to be consistent with carrying value), with no goodwill or other intangible assets recorded. Operations prior to the Business Combination will be presented in future financial reports as those of Aurora.
The unvested Sponsor Shares are expected be classified as a liability measured at fair value as at the date of the Business Combination, subject to subsequent remeasurement at each reporting date until the liability is settled in accordance with the vesting terms or the Sponsor Shares are forfeited upon the 10
th
 anniversary. Public and private warrants of RTPY are not expected to be modified as a result of the Business Combination, resulting in no accounting impact upon consummation of Business Combination.
All outstanding capital stock of Legacy Aurora were converted into shares of common stock of Aurora based on the Exchange Ratio, with the corresponding increase in the par value of common stock being recognized against
additional paid-in capital.
Outstanding vested and unvested share-based awards of Legacy Aurora (including options and RSUs) were converted into the right to receive upon vesting or exercise such awards for common shares of Aurora, adjusted proportionately based on the Exchange Ratio. Because no terms of such share-based awards were modified upon consummation of the Business Combination, no accounting impact for such outstanding awards is expected. For pro forma presentation purposes, the Exchange Ratio is approximately 2.1708.
Basis of Pro Forma Presentation
The adjustments in the unaudited pro forma condensed combined financial information have been identified and presented to provide relevant information of Aurora upon consummation of the Business Combination and other events contemplated by the Merger Agreement. Assumptions and estimates underlying the unaudited pro forma adjustments set forth in the unaudited pro forma condensed combined financial information are described in the accompanying notes.
The unaudited pro forma condensed combined financial information has been presented for illustrative purposes only and is not necessarily indicative of the operating results and financial position that would have
 
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been achieved had the Business Combination occurred on the dates indicated. Any additional Business Combination proceeds remaining after the payment of redeeming RTPY shareholders, the payment of underwriter fees and the payment of transaction costs related to the Merger are expected to be used for other general corporate purposes. Further, the unaudited pro forma condensed combined financial information does not purport to project the future operating results or financial position of Aurora following the completion of the Business Combination. The unaudited pro forma adjustments represent management’s estimates based on information available as of the date of these unaudited pro forma condensed combined financial information and are subject to change as additional information becomes available and analyses are performed. RTPY and Aurora have not had any historical relationship prior to the transactions, accordingly, no pro forma adjustments were required to eliminate activities between the companies.
The following summarizes the pro forma Aurora common stock issued and outstanding immediately after the Business Combination and the related ownership percentages.
 
(in millions)
  
Number

of Shares
    
Percentage of
Outstanding
Shares
 
Legacy Aurora Stockholders
(1)
     1,047.0        93.6
Sponsor, Sponsor Related PIPE Investor and RTPY independent directors
(2)
     9.3        0.8
RTPY’s public shareholders
(3)
     22.3        2.0
Third Party PIPE Investors
     40.2        3.6
  
 
 
    
 
 
 
Outstanding Shares
     1,118.8        100.0
  
 
 
    
 
 
 
 
(1)
Includes (i) 513.6 million shares of Class A Common Stock (ii) 481.1 million shares of Class B Common Stock, and (iii) 52.4 million shares subscribed for through the PIPE by existing Legacy Aurora investors. Excludes (i) 82.4 million shares underlying the Aurora Options, whether unvested or vested, and (ii) 34.7 million shares underlying Aurora RSU Awards.
(2)
Includes 7.5 million shares to be purchased by Sponsor Related PIPE Investor as part of the PIPE Investment. Excludes 5.2 million Sponsor Shares which became subject to price-based vesting conditions in conjunction with the completion of the Business Combination.
(3)
The number of shares is net of redemptions of approximately 75.5 million Class A ordinary shares of RTPY at redemption price of approximately $10.00 per share.
 
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UNAUDITED PRO FORMA CONDENSED COMBINED BALANCE SHEET
AS OF JUNE 30, 2021
(in thousands)
 
   
RTPY
(Historical)
   
Aurora
(Historical)
   
Transaction
Accounting
Adjustments
         
Pro Forma
Combined
 
ASSETS
         
Current assets:
         
Cash and cash equivalents
  $ 501     $ 784,813     $ 1,142,893       A     $ 1,928,207  
Restricted cash, current
    —         182       —           182  
Prepaid expenses and other current assets
    1,325       23,159       (3,476     B       21,008  
 
 
 
   
 
 
   
 
 
     
 
 
 
Total current assets
    1,826       808,154       1,139,417         1,949,397  
Cash held in trust account
    977,544       —         (977,544     C       —    
Property and equipment, net
    —         80,112       —           80,112  
Operating
lease right-of-use assets
    —         146,593       —           146,593  
Restricted cash, noncurrent
    —         13,300       —           13,300  
Other assets, net
    —         19,777       —           19,777  
Acquisition related intangible assets
    —         617,200       —           617,200  
Goodwill
    —         1,111,197       —           1,111,197  
 
 
 
   
 
 
   
 
 
     
 
 
 
Total assets
  $ 979,370     $ 2,796,333     $ 161,873       $ 3,937,576  
 
 
 
   
 
 
   
 
 
     
 
 
 
LIABILITIES AND STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY (DEFICIT)
         
Current liabilities:
         
Accounts payable
  $ 28     $ 6,541     $ (25     D     $ 6,544  
Accrued expenses and other current liabilities
    323       53,595       (3,341     D       50,577  
Operating lease liabilities, current
    —         10,816       —           10,816  
Related party payable
    498       1,422       —           1,920  
 
 
 
   
 
 
   
 
 
     
 
 
 
Total current liabilities
    849       72,374       (3,366       69,857  
Other liabilities
    —         434       —           434  
Derivative warrant liabilities
    38,914       —         —           38,914  
Deposit liability
    —         50,000       —           50,000  
Derivative liability – Sponsor Shares
    —         —         46,941       E       46,941  
Deferred legal fees and underwriting commissions
    34,231       —         (34,231     F       —    
Operating lease liabilities, long-term
    —         127,715       —           127,715  
Deferred tax liability
    —         3,203       —           3,203  
 
 
 
   
 
 
   
 
 
     
 
 
 
Total liabilities
    73,994       253,726       9,344         337,064  
 
 
 
   
 
 
   
 
 
     
 
 
 
Redeemable convertible preferred stock
    —         2,161,145       (2,161,145     G       —    
Common shares subject to possible redemption
    900,376       —         (900,376     H       —    
Stockholders’ equity (deficit):
         
RTPY Class A Ordinary Shares
    1       —         (1     I       —    
RTPY Class B Ordinary Shares
    2       —         (2     I       —    
Class A Common Stock
    —         —         63       J       63  
Class B Common Stock
    —         —         48       K       48  
Legacy Aurora common stock
    —         25       (25     L       —    
Additional paid-in capital
    10,845       1,087,631       3,259,322       M       4,357,798  
Retained earnings (accumulated deficit)
    (5,848     (706,194     (45,355     N       (757,397
 
 
 
   
 
 
   
 
 
     
 
 
 
Total stockholders’ equity
    5,000       381,462       3,214,050         3,600,512  
 
 
 
   
 
 
   
 
 
     
 
 
 
Total liabilities and stockholders’ equity (deficit)
    979,370       2,796,333       161,873         3,937,576  
 
 
 
   
 
 
   
 
 
     
 
 
 
 
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UNAUDITED PRO FORMA CONDENSED COMBINED STATEMENT OF OPERATIONS
FOR THE YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31, 2020
(in thousands, except share and per share amounts)
 
   
For the Year Ended
December 31, 2020
   
Apparate Acquisition
   
For the period
from
October 2, 2020
(inception) to

December 31,
2020 RTPY
(Historical)
   
Transaction
Accounting
Adjustments
         
Pro Forma
Combined
 
   
Aurora
Innovation, Inc.
(Historical)
   
Apparate
(Historical)
   
Transaction
Accounting
Adjustments
         
Pro Forma
Combined
 
Revenue
  $ —       $ 100,000     $ (100,000     O     $ —       $ —       $ —         $ —    
Operating Expenses
                 
Research and development
    179,426       649,047       36,409       P       864,882       —         88,583       R       953,465  
Selling, general and administrative
    38,693       150,637       (3,812     Q       185,518       19       5,903       S       191,440  
 
 
 
   
 
 
   
 
 
     
 
 
   
 
 
   
 
 
     
 
 
 
Total operating expenses
    218,119       799,684       32,597         1,050,400       19       94,486         1,144,905  
 
 
 
   
 
 
   
 
 
     
 
 
   
 
 
   
 
 
     
 
 
 
Loss from operations
    (218,119     (699,684     (132,597       (1,050,400     (19     (94,486       (1,144,905
 
 
 
   
 
 
   
 
 
     
 
 
   
 
 
   
 
 
     
 
 
 
Interest and other income, net
    3,672       2,409       —           6,081       —         —           6,081